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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 9478630, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9478630
Review Article

Probiotic Species in the Modulation of Gut Microbiota: An Overview

1Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Changsha, Hunan 410125, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3Department of Food Engineering and Technology, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh

Correspondence should be addressed to Jie Yin; moc.621@4102eijniy

Received 25 February 2018; Accepted 29 March 2018; Published 8 May 2018

Academic Editor: Lidong Zhai

Copyright © 2018 Md. Abul Kalam Azad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Probiotics are microbial strains that are beneficial to health, and their potential has recently led to a significant increase in research interest in their use to modulate the gut microbiota. The animal gut is a complex ecosystem of host cells, microbiota, and available nutrients, and the microbiota prevents several degenerative diseases in humans and animals via immunomodulation. The gut microbiota and its influence on human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immunity are addressed, and several probiotic species and strains are discussed to improve the understanding of modulation of gut microbiota. This paper provides a broad review of several Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and other coliform bacteria as the most promising probiotic species and their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malignancy, liver disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. This review also discusses a recent study of Saccharomyces spp. in which inflammation was prevented by promotion of proinflammatory immune function via the production of short-chain fatty acids. A summary of gut microbiota alteration with future perspectives is also provided.