Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 9796238, 14 pages
Research Article

Portable Brain-Computer Interface for the Intensive Care Unit Patient Communication Using Subject-Dependent SSVEP Identification

Computer and Information Science Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd., CIS 112, Dearborn, MI, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Omid Dehzangi

Received 15 August 2017; Revised 1 December 2017; Accepted 6 December 2017; Published 5 February 2018

Academic Editor: Noman Naseer

Copyright © 2018 Omid Dehzangi and Muhamed Farooq. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A major predicament for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients is inconsistent and ineffective communication means. Patients rated most communication sessions as difficult and unsuccessful. This, in turn, can cause distress, unrecognized pain, anxiety, and fear. As such, we designed a portable BCI system for ICU communications (BCI4ICU) optimized to operate effectively in an ICU environment. The system utilizes a wearable EEG cap coupled with an Android app designed on a mobile device that serves as visual stimuli and data processing module. Furthermore, to overcome the challenges that BCI systems face today in real-world scenarios, we propose a novel subject-specific Gaussian Mixture Model- (GMM-) based training and adaptation algorithm. First, we incorporate subject-specific information in the training phase of the SSVEP identification model using GMM-based training and adaptation. We evaluate subject-specific models against other subjects. Subsequently, from the GMM discriminative scores, we generate the transformed vectors, which are passed to our predictive model. Finally, the adapted mixture mean scores of the subject-specific GMMs are utilized to generate the high-dimensional supervectors. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieved 98.7% average identification accuracy, which is promising in order to provide effective and consistent communication for patients in the intensive care.