BioMed Research International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Do Probiotics Improve the Health Status of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus? A Review on Outcomes of Clinical Trials

Table 1

The anti-diabetic properties of probiotics supplementations: outcomes of randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials using human subjects.

SubjectsInterventionDurationKey observationsHealth claimReference(s)

T2D patientsSoy milk with L. plantarum A78 weeks↓ Urine albumin levelImproved the kidney function[39]
↓ Serum creatinine, IL-18, sialic acid levels Improved the GFR
DKD patientsProbiotic soy milk8 weeks↑ Reduced GSH, GPx, glutathione reductaseImproved the oxidative stress factors[40]
T2D patientsEcologic®Barrier26 weeks↓ Systemic inflammatory state, and inflammatory responseImproved the systemic inflammatory status[15]
↓ Endotoxin levels altered the gut microbiota
T2D patientsEcologic®Barrier12 weeks↓ Waist-hip ratio Improved HOMA-IRImproved HOMA-IR score[16]
T2D patientsEcologic®Barrier6 months↓ EndotoxinImproved HOMA-IR score, and cardiometabolic profile[17]
↓ TG, TC, HOMA-IR
↓ TNF-α, IL-6
↓ C-reactive protein, resistin
↑ Adiponectin
T2D patientsL. acidophilus L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaricus, B. breve, B. longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus8 weeks↓ Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)Improved the antioxidant status and mineral content[18, 19]
↑ Serum insulin, LDL level, HOMA-IR score Altered the hs-CRP value
↑ Serum GSH level
↑ Serum calcium level
↓ Serum ALT
T2D patientsL. acidophilus, L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaricus, B. breve, B. longum, S. thermophilus and FOS6 weeks↓ FPGImproved the glycemic status[20]
↑ HDL No changes in TG, TC, insulin level, anthropometric values
T2D patientsL. sporogenes and inulin6 weeks↓ Serum insulin level, FPG, hs-CRP levelsImproved the metabolic status[21]
↑ Serum GSH level, uric acid
T2D patientsYogurt containing L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb126 weeks↓ TC, LDLImproved the lipid profile and TAS[41, 42]
↓ TC: HDL, and LDL: HDL ratio
↓ FPG, HbA1c, MDA
↑ SOD, GPx, and TAS
T2D patientsYogurt containing L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb124 weeks↓ FPG, HbA1c, TGImproved the lipid profile and glycemic status[43]
↓ LDL
T2D patientsL. acidophilus, L. casei, L. lactis, B. bifidum, B. longum, and B. infantis12 weeks↓ HbA1c, Fasting insulin levelImproved only HbA1c, fasting insulin level[22]
T2D patientsL. reuteri ADR-1, and L. reuteri ADR-39 months↓ HbA1c, Cholesterol levelImproved the fecal microbial composition[23]
↓ Blood pressure
↑ Fecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium load
T2D patientsL. reuteri DSM 1793812 weeks↑ Insulin sensitivity indexImproved insulin sensitivity[24]
↑ Serum deoxycholic acid
T2D patientsSymbiter8 weeks↓ HOMA-IR, HbA1cImproved the insulin resistance[25]
T2D patientsL. casei strain Shirota fermented milk16 weeks↓ Bacterial translocationReduced the bacterial translocation[44]
Clostridium coccoides group
C. leptum subgroup, Lactobacillus species
T2D patientsFermented milk (L. acidophilus La-5 and B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12)6 weeks↓ HbA1c, fructosamine levelsImproved the glycemic control[45]
↓ TNF-α and resistin
↓ TC, LDL
↑ Fecal acetic acid
T2D patientsLactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., S. thermophilus, and FOS9 weeks↓ FPG, HbA1c, BMIImproved the glucose level and DM-associated parameters[26]
↓ Microalbuminuria
T2D patientsL. acidophilus, B. bifidum and FOS30 days↓ FPG, TC, TG, LDLImproved the glycemic status[27]
↑ HDL
T2D patients with CHDL. acidophilus, L. casei, B. bifidum and inulin12 weeks↓ FPG, insulin level, HOMA-β cell functionImproved the insulin metabolism[28]
↑ Insulin sensitivity index, HDL
T2D patientsL. salivarius UBLS, L. casei UBLC42, L. plantarum UBLP40, L. acidophilus UBLA34, B. breve UBBR01, Bacillus coagulans Unique‑IS2, and FOS12 weeks↓ FPG, postprandial blood sugar, insulin level, HOMA-IRImproved the HRQL[29]
GDM patientsL. acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium BB-12, S. thermophilus STY-31, and L. delbrueckii bulgaricus LBY-278 weeks↓ Weight gainInfluenced the weight gain and glucose metabolism[31]
↓ FPG
↓ Insulin resistance index
↑ Insulin sensitivity index
GDM patientsL. acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium BB-12, S. thermophilus STY-31, and L. delbrueckii bulgaricus LBY-278 weeks↓ TNF-αImproved inflammation and antioxidant status[32]
↓ hs-CRP value
↓ IL-6, MDA, uric acid
↑ Glutathione reductase, SOD, TAS
GDM patientsVSL#38 weeksNo change in FPG, HbA1c values, and insulin levelImproved the inflammatory markers[33]
↓ IL-6, hs-CRP, TNF-α
GDM patientsL. acidophilusL. casei and B. bifidum6 weeks↓ FPG, insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β-cell functionGlycemic control[34]
↓ TG, VLDL
↑ Insulin sensitivity
GDM patientsInfloran®4 weeks↓ FPG, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IRGlycemic control[35]
GDM patientsL. rhamnosus HN001↓ FPGReduced the GDM prevalence[36]
↓ Relative rate of GDM
Pre-diabetic patientsProbiotics (L. acidophilus, B. lactis, B. bifidum, and B. longum); Synbiotic (probiotics + inulin)24 weeks↓ FPG, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HbA1cGlycemic improvement[37]
↑ QUICKI score
Pre-diabetic patientsProbiotics (L. acidophilus, B. lactis, B. bifidum, and B. longum); Synbiotic (probiotics + inulin)24 weeks↓ Hyperglycemia, hypertensionImproved the metabolic syndrome[38]
↓ Metabolic syndrome associated parameters

T2D: Type 2 diabetes; DKD: Diabetic kidney disease; IL-18: Interleukin-18; GFR: Glomerular filtration rate; HOMA: Homeostasis model of assessment; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance; VLDL: Very low-density lipoprotein LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; hs-CRP: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, GSH: Glutathione; TG: Triglycerides; ALT: Alanine aminotransferase; GDM: Gestational diabetes mellitus; DM: Diabetes mellitus; HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c; BMI: Body mass index; TC: Total cholesterol; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; TAS: Total antioxidant status; MDA: Malondialdehyde; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; QUICKI: Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; CHD: Coronary heart disease; HRQL: Health‑related quality of life; FOS: Fructooligosaccharide.

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