Table 2: Inhibitory effect of MSCs on tumors.

AuthorMSC originTumor modelMSC: tumor cell ratioOutcomesMechanisms

Ho, Ivy AW et al. [28]Human bone marrow-derived MSCsPrimary human glioma cells1:1 (coinjection)Reduction in tumor volume and vascular densitySecretion of soluble factors inhibiting endothelial progenitor cells recruitment and impaired tumor angiogenesis

Leng, Liang et al. [29]Human umbilical cord-derived MSCsHuman breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-2311:1 (injection of MDA-MB-231 first, injection of MSCs 13 days later)Antitumor effectInhibited tumor angiogenesis and induced cell apoptosis

Meleshina, Aleksandra V. et al. [30]Human bone marrow-derived MSCsMDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line1:1 (MDAMB-231-Turbo FP650 cells injection fist, injection of MSCs 10 days later)Suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasisReduced proliferative activity of cancer cells

Dasari, Venkata Ramesh et al. [31]Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCsTwo high-grade human glioma cell lines (SNB19 and U251) and two xenograft cell lines (4910 and 5310)1:4 (MSCs injection 7 days after tumor implantation)Inhibited tumor growthUpregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in tumors induced cellular death through decreasing XIAP expression

Xie, Chan et al. [32]Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (interferon beta (IFN-β) modified)HCC cell lines HepG2 and Huh7300:1 (MSC injection 3 days after HCC inoculation)Inhibition of HCC proliferationInhibition of AKT/FOCO3a pathway

Wu, Ning et al. [33]Human umbilical cords-derived MSCs (transfection of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α)Liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and SK-Hep-11:5 (MSC injection 24 h after tumor implantation)Inhibited HCC proliferation and invasionDownregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCC cells

François, Sabine et al. [20]MSCs from human or rat bone marrowColorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT-116, LS513, and CC531)N/AAttenuation of tumor progressionModulation of immune component