Research Article

Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Lineages as In Vitro Models for Screening the Neuroprotective Properties of Lignosus rhinocerus (Cooke) Ryvarden

Figure 7

Neuroprotective effects of L. rhinocerus ME extract (5 and 50 μg/ml) on (a) apoptosis of NSCs treated with DEX (1 and 100 μM) and (b) percentage of apoptotic nuclei in NSCs treated with 100 μM DEX and 10 μM etoposide. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 - 4). Asterisks denote significant differences compared to 0 μg/ml (negative control); P < 0.05, P < 0.001. Hashtags denote significant differences compared to cells treated with DEX or etoposide only; # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01, ### P < 0.001. (c) Representative quadrants from flow cytometry analysis. The lower left quadrant represents live cells while the lower right and upper right quadrants represent early and late apoptotic cells, respectively. (d) Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy of NSCs nuclei stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Arrows indicate apoptotic cells with condensed or fragmented nuclei. Scale bar: 50 μm.