BioMed Research International / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Clinical Study

Prebiotic Effect of Lycopene and Dark Chocolate on Gut Microbiome with Systemic Changes in Liver Metabolism, Skeletal Muscles and Skin in Moderately Obese Persons

Table 3

Changes in sebum, and corneocyte parameters of the skin after supplementation with GA lycopene for one month.

Parameters before and after 4 weeks of trialGroups with GA Lycopene supplementation
IIIIIIIVV

Sebum droplet size, in μm
before4.6 ± 1.113.96 ± 0.173.72 ± 0.433.89 ± 0.214.9 ± 0.53
after5.1 ± 0.754.14 ± 0.114.20 ± 0.883.94 ± 0.224.9 ± 0.57

Corneocyte exfoliation rate§
before66 ± 6.882 ± 7.883 ± 9.387 ± 9.561 ± 6.2
after63 ± 6.273 ± 12.076 ± 7.767 ± 13.560 ± 6.9

Corneocyte damage
before4.2 ± 0.987.19 ± 2.473.40 ± 0.973.50 ± 1.162.0 ± 1.98
after2.5 ± 0.433.80 ± 1.232.41 ± 0.762.17 ± 0.521.8 ± 1.23

p < 0.05, p < 0.001.
as an average number of single corneocytes in stratum cornea, as an average number of cross-linked damaged corneocyte clusters in stratum cornea; each parameter was calculated in 40 randomly selected microscopic areas (x 1,000).