Figure 5: Schematic diagram for the activation of NF-κB pathway by high glucose. High glucose is absorbed by SCAPs mainly by glucose transporters (GLUT). High glucose can induce the phosphorylation of IkBα in the cytoplasm, which subsequently leads to the rapid hydrolysis of IkBα. P65 is then phosphorylated and transported into nuclei, which finally causes the activation of NF-κB pathway and odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.