Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates Kidney Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury via Reducing Inflammation, Tubular Injury, and Myofibroblast Formation
(a) Representative pictures of PAS staining in all groups. The SO group had normal histology of kidney tissue with brush border. The IR group had tubular injury characteristics with dilatation and brush-border loss (white arrow). (b) Immunostaining of PCNA showed positive staining in epithelial cells’ nuclei (black arrows). (c, d). Quantification of tubular injury score and PCNA-positive cell number showed attenuation of tubular injury which associated with the increased number of proliferating epithelial cells in CGA-treated groups (especially IR + CGA3 group). (e) Creatinine level measurement showed reduction in the IR + CGA3 group. (f) Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of vimentin (mesenchymal marker) and TGF-β1 (profibrotic factor). The IR + CGA3 group demonstrated significantly lower vimentin and TGF-β1 mRNA expressions with the IR group. vs. SO group; vs. IR group; vs. SO group. vs. IR group; vs. IR group; vs. IR group.