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BioMed Research International
Volume 2019, Article ID 5936345, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5936345
Research Article

Is Prehospital Time Important for the Treatment of Severely Injured Patients? A Matched-Triplet Analysis of 13,851 Patients from the TraumaRegister DGU®

1Department of Trauma and Hand Surgery, University Hospital, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
2Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM), Witten/Herdecke University, Ostmerheimer Str. 200, 51109 Cologne, Germany
3Department of Trauma Surgery, Alfried Krupp Hospital, Alfried-Krupp-Strasse 21, 45131 Essen, Germany
4University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Bjoern Hussmann; ed.suahneknark-ppurk@nnamssuh.nreojb

Received 13 December 2018; Revised 11 April 2019; Accepted 16 May 2019; Published 20 June 2019

Academic Editor: Robert J. Lee

Copyright © 2019 Konstantin Klein et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The impact of time (the golden period of trauma) on the outcome of severely injured patients has been well known for a long time. While the duration of the prehospital phase has changed only slightly (average time: ~66 min) since the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU®) was implemented, mortality rates have decreased within the last 20 years. This study analyzed the influence of prehospital time on the outcome of trauma patients in a matched-triplet analysis. Material and Methods. A total of 93,024 patients from the TraumaRegister DGU® were selected based on the following inclusion criteria: ISS ≥ 16, primary admission, age ≥ 16 years, and data were available for the following variables: prehospital intubation, blood pressure, mode of transportation, and age. The patients were assigned to one of three groups: group 1: 10-50 min (short emergency treatment time); group 2: 51-75 min (intermediate emergency treatment time); group 3: >75 min (long emergency treatment time). A matched-triplet analysis was conducted; matching was based on the following criteria: intubation at the accident site, rescue resources, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of the body regions, systolic blood pressure, year of the accident, and age. Results. A total of 4,617 patients per group could be matched. The number of patients with a GCS score ≤8 was significantly higher in the first group (group 1: 36.6%, group 2: 33.5%, group 3: 30.3%; p < 0.001). Moreover, the number of patients who had to be resuscitated during the prehospital phase and/or upon arrival at the hospital was higher in group 1 (p = 0.010); these patients also had a significantly higher mortality (group 1: 20.4%, group 2: 18.1%, group 3: 15.9%; p ≤ 0.001). The number of measures performed during the prehospital phase (e.g., chest tube insertion) increased with treatment time. Conclusions. The results suggest that survival after severe trauma is not only a matter of short rescue time but more a matter of well-used rescue time including performance of vital measures already in the prehospital setting. This also includes that rescue teams identify the severity of injuries more rapidly in the most-severely injured patients in critical condition than in less-severely injured patients and plan their interventions accordingly.