Table 2
(a) Group-specific patient data regarding emergency treatment time and vital signs

Group 1Group 2Group 3All patientsp-values

Arrival of emergency doctor after accident (in min.; mean, SD)11.9 ± 5.616.6 ± 8.228.3 ± 24.719.1 ± 17.0≤ 0.001
Time spent by emergency doctor at accident site (in min.; mean, SD)19.3 ± 7.629.5 ± 10.445.7 ± 21.331.9 ± 18.4≤ 0.001
Time from accident site to A&E (in min.; mean, SD)11.0 ± 5.517.4 ± 8.027.7 ± 17.319.1 ± 13.5≤ 0.001
Total prehospital time (in min.; mean, SD)40.1 ± 8.362.9 ± 6.9101.1 ± 26.068.0 ± 29.9≤ 0.001
BP at accident site (mmHg; mean, SD)119.3 ± 37.9120.6 ± 36.8121.0± 34.8120.3 ± 36.50.53
BP at admission to hospital (mm Hg; mean, SD)121.2 ± 33.9122.5 ± 33.3123.9 ± 30.3122.5 ± 32.50.24
BP at accident site <90 mm HG (%)18.418.418.418.41
BP <90 mm HG in the emergency department (%)14.714.112.613.80.01
Heart rate at accident site (sec.; mean, SD)91.4 ± 2692.4 ± 25.193.0 ± 24.292.3 ± 25.10.24
Heart rate upon admission to hospital (sec.; mean, SD)88.5 ± 23.589.8 ± 21.989.5 ± 20.889.3 ± 22.10.71

Values are shown as the mean (MV), standard deviation (SD) or % of the group. BP, blood pressure.
(b) Group-specific patient data regarding laboratory values in-hospital

Group 1Group 2Group 3All patientsp-values

Hb upon admission to hospital (mg/dl; mean, SD)12.0 ± 2.811.9 ± 2.811.9 ± 2.711.9 ± 2.80.04
Prothrombin ratio (%) in hospital80.7 ± 23.080.0 ± 23.179.6 ± 23.180.1 ± 23.10.03
Platelet count/nl upon admission to hospital (mean, SD)209140 ± 80468204319 ± 75993202959 ± 80165205399 ± 78896≤ 0.001
Prothrombin time in hospital (sec., mean, SD)35.2 ± 21.234.9 ± 22.434.1 ± 18.934.7 ± 20.90.09
Base excess in hospital (mean, SD)-3.2 ± 4.9-2.8 ± 4.9-2.7 ± 4.6-2.9 ± 4.80.03
TASH (mean, SD)8.4 ± 15.58.4 ± 15.17.9 ± 14.38.2 ± 14.90.87

Values are shown as the mean, standard deviation (SD) or % of the group. Hb, hemoglobin; TASH, Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage.
(c) Group-specific patient data regarding prehospital and in-hospital therapies

Group 1Group 2Group 3All patientsp-values

Fluid replaced prehospital (in ml; mean, SD)1135 ± 950.21280 ± 934.71461 ± 1095.81291.8 ± 1004.9≤ 0.001
Fluid replaced in the emergency department (in ml; mean, SD)2234.9 ± 3080.22203 ± 2287.12360.5 ± 2599.52266.4 ± 2667.9≤ 0.001
Fluid replaced prehospital (%)93.895.495.795.0≤ 0.001
Prehospital use of catecholamines (%)9.09.29.19.10.97
Transfusions of pRBC (%)
in hospital
24.125.625.124.90.21
Units of pRBC in hospital (mean, SD)1.9 ± 5.51.9 ± 5.41.8 ± 5.21.9 ± 5.30.27
Units of fresh-frozen plasma in hospital (mean, SD)1.0 ± 4.21.1 ± 3.91.0 ± 3.81.0 ± 4.00.21
Prehospital intubation (%)52.752.752.752.71.00
Intubation in hospital (%)56.455.657.056.30.12
Prehospital chest tube (%)5.25.86.96.00.01
Chest tube in hospital (%)25.423.022.123.50.003
Prehospital CPR (%)5.24.03.04.1≤ 0.001
CPR in hospital (%)5.94.83.34.6≤ 0.001
Prehospital sedation (%)76.982.084.281.1≤ 0.001
MSCT in hospital (%)68.068.270.00.120.100

Values are shown as the mean, standard deviation (SD) or % of the group. pRBC, packed red blood cells; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; MSCT, multislice computed tomography.