BioMed Research International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Aortic Arch Calcification Is a Strong Predictor of the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

Table 1

Baseline characteristics of all patients and patients with low SS (SS ≤22) and intermediate-to-high SS (SS >22).

VariableAll PatientsLow SSIntermediate-to-high SSP value
N = 1,418N = 821N = 597

Female gender, n ()344 (24.3)203 (24.7)141 (23.6)0.503
Age (years)59±1058±1061±11<0.001
Height (m)1.69 (1.63–1.73)1.69 (1.63–1.73)1.68 (1.62–1.73)0.269
Weight (kg)73±1273±1272±120.427
BMI (kg/m2)25.7±3.325.7±3.325.7±3.30.834
Family history of CHD, n ()428 (30.2)244 (29.7)184 (30.8)0.766
Arterial hypertension, n ()904 (63.8)513 (62.5)391 (65.5)0.248
Diabetes, n ()542 (38.2)260 (31.7)282 (47.2)<0.001
Dyslipidemia, n ()1120 (79.0)636 (77.5)484 (81.1)0.088
History of MI, n ()148 (10.4)56 (6.8)92 (15.4)<0.001
History of CA, n ()90 (6.3)44 (5.4)46 (7.7)0.066
Known PVD, n ()122 (8.6)31 (3.8)91 (15.2)<0.001
COPD, n (%)18 (1.3)12 (1.5)6 (1.0)0.461
Smoking0.012
Never smokers, n (%)592 (41.7)339 (41.3)253 (42.4)
Former smokers, n (%)158 (11.1)76 (9.3)82 (13.7)
Current smokers, n (%)668 (47.1)406 (49.5)262 (43.9)
ACS types0.002
UA, n (%)980 (69.1)595 (72.5)385 (64.5)
NSTEMI, n (%)204 (14.4)100 (12.2)104 (17.4)
STEMI, n (%)234 (16.5)126 (15.3)108 (18.1)
Medical measurements (on admission)
SBP (mmHg)130±17130±17130±170.999
DBP (mmHg)76±1177±1175±110.021
Laboratory measurements (on admission)
CK-MB (ng/ml)1.3 (0.9–1.9)1.2 (0.9–1.9)1.4 (0.9–2.0)0.015
cTnI (ng/ml)0 (0–0.02)0 (0–0.01)0.01 (0–0.04)<0.001
BNP (pg/ml)36 (22–87)33 (20–67)43 (23–108)<0.001
WBC count (109/L)6.43 (5.38–7.67)6.41 (5.42–7.68)6.47 (5.33–7.67)0.651
Fibrinogen (g/L)3.22 (2.80–3.68)3.16 (2.77–3.55)3.31 (2.92–3.82)<0.001
CRP (mg/L)1.37 (0.55–4.10)1.23 (0.51–3.43)1.67 (0.63–5.64)<0.001
Laboratory measurements (fasting state)
TC (mmol/L)4.18±1.024.18±1.014.18±1.020.885
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.49±0.832.46±0.832.53±0.830.121
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.00 (0.87–1.17)1.02 (0.87–1.18)0.97 (0.86–1.16)0.003
TG (mmol/L)1.43 (1.03–2.10)1.51 (1.05–2.13)1.37 (1.00–1.98)0.012
FPG (mmol/L)5.13 (5.66–6.99)5.49 (5.05–6.64)5.99 (5.26–7.45)<0.001
HbA1c (%)5.9 (5.5–6.9)5.8 (5.5–6.6)6.2 (5.6–7.4)<0.001
CrCl (ml/min)102±31104±3298±28<0.001
LVEF ()65 (60–68)65 (60–69)64 (60–68)<0.001
Medications use (before admission)
Antiplatelet drugs, n (%)982 (69.3)559 (68.1)423 (70.9)0.322
HMG-CoA inhibitors, n (%)958 (67.6)545 (66.4)413 (69.2)0.326
ACE inhibitors/ARBs, n (%)350 (24.7)198 (24.1)152 (25.5)0.587
Beta-blockers, n (%)517 (36.5)270 (32.9)247 (41.4)0.002
CCBs, n (%)467 (32.9)248 (30.2)219 (36.7)0.008
Insulin, n (%)202 (14.2)76 (9.3)126 (21.1)<0.001
Sulfonyl Urea, n (%)122 (8.6)57 (6.9)65 (10.9)0.013
Biguanides, n (%)136 (9.6)72 (8.8)64 (10.7)0.276
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, n (%)98 (6.9)44 (5.4)54 (9.0)0.006
Angiographic characteristics
Left-main disease, n (%)116 (8.2)18 (2.2)98 (16.4)<0.001
Three-vessel disease, n (%)786 (55.4)294 (35.8)492 (82.4)<0.001
Proximal LAD stenosis, n (%)780 (55.0)321 (39.1)459 (76.9)<0.001
Trifurcation or bifurcation lesions, n (%)1094 (77.2)554 (67.5)540 (90.5)<0.001
Total occlusions, n (%)390 (27.5)130 (15.8)260 (43.6)<0.001
Heavy calcification lesions, n (%)432 (30.5)116 (14.1)316 (52.9)<0.001
Lesions length >20mm, n (%)750 (52.9)323 (39.3)427 (71.5)<0.001
AAC grades<0.001
Grade 0, n (%)407 (28.7)383 (46.7)24 (4.0)
Grade 1, n (%)524 (37.0)349 (42.5)175 (29.3)
Grade 2, n (%)390 (27.5)76 (9.3)314 (52.6)
Grade 3, n (%)97 (6.8)13 (1.6)84 (14.1)

SS: SYNTAX score; BMI: body mass index; CHD: coronary heart disease; CA: cerebrovascular accident; PVD: peripheral vascular disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI: myocardial infarction; UA: unstable angina; NSTEMI: non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; STEMI: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; CK-MB: creatine kinase isoenzyme MB; cTnI: cardiac troponin I; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; WBC: white blood cell; CRP: C-reactive protein; TC: total cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c: glycated haemoglobin A1c; CrCl: creatinine clearance; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; ACE: angiotensin converting enzyme; ARBs: angiotensin II receptor blockers; CCBs: calcium channel blockers; LAD: left anterior descending; AAC: aortic arch calcification.

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