The PARK2 Mutation Associated with Parkinson’s Disease Enhances the Vulnerability of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Paraquat
Overexpression of WT Parkin, but not the C441 mutant, protected HeLa cells and immortalized PBLs against paraquat-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. (a) HeLa cells cotransfected with mitochondrial marker TOM20 (red) and WT Parkin or the C441R mutant (green) were treated with 1 mM paraquat (left panel). (b) Quantification of cells displaying Parkin co-localization with mitochondria (right panel). (c, d) Quantification of apoptosis in HeLa cells and immortalized lymphocytes transfected with empty vector, Parkin WT, or C441R mutant after paraquat treatment. (e) Cytosolic cytochrome C and cleaved caspase 9 levels in immortalized lymphocytes transfected with empty vector, Parkin WT, or C441R mutant after paraquat treatment, detected by western blot analysis. , ; .