BioMed Research International

BioMed Research International / 2021 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2021 |Article ID 6656406 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6656406

Demoze Asmerom, Tesfay Haile Kalay, Tsgabu Yohannes Araya, Desilu Mahari Desta, Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash, Gebrehiwot Gebremedhin Tafere, "Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review", BioMed Research International, vol. 2021, Article ID 6656406, 12 pages, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6656406

Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

Academic Editor: Atef M. Al Attar
Received15 Oct 2020
Revised13 May 2021
Accepted27 May 2021
Published08 Jun 2021

Abstract

Background. Erectile dysfunction has remained as one of the major global health issues. Since the discovery of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, a significant portion of the patients has solved the issue of erectile dysfunction. However, the wide distribution of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzymes at various sites of the body led phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors to cause various unnecessary outcomes. Hence, it is vital to look for and find optional agents that could solve these limitations. The people of Ethiopia depend heavily on medicinal plants to ease their ailments, including erectile dysfunction. Aim of the study. The current study was carried out to systematically review the traditional medicinal plants used for the management of erectile dysfunction in Ethiopia. Method. A systematic and manual search was conducted to retrieve relevant articles published from 2000 to August 2020. Electronic databases of PubMed (Medline), Google Scholar, and grey literature were employed to access the studies. Accordingly, fifty-four published articles and thesis papers were finally included in this study. Result. Seventy plant species have been reported for the management of erectile dysfunction in Ethiopia. The commonly recorded family was Fabaceae, followed by Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Solanaceae. The plant species that represented the highest number of citations were Asparagus africanus, succeeded by Ricinus communis and Carissa spinarum. The commonest plant part used was roots. Majority of the medicinal plants were administered orally. The growth forms of the reported species were primarily herbs followed by shrubs. Conclusion. The present review compiled medicinal plants utilized by the Ethiopian community to manage erectile dysfunction. The findings will serve as a reference for the selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological, and phytochemical investigations in developing new plant-based drugs used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

1. Introduction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) (also called impotence) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance [1]. It has remained one of the major global health issues which is usually attributed to age, diabetes mellitus, smoking, cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease, previous operations, psychological factors, and drugs [2, 3]. Previously, about 52% of ED in men was seen in the age range of 40 to 70 years [3]. However, recent studies reported that ED is becoming highly prevalent even under the age of 40 [4]. In Africa, around 71.45% of people with diabetes developed ED [5]. In Ethiopia, about 60.4% of diabetic patients were reported with varying degrees of ED and the majority of the patients did not receive any medications [6]. More terribly, if this is not halted as early as possible, the number of ED cases globally is predicted to be 322 million by 2025 [7].

Erectile dysfunction can be managed nonpharmacologically via controlling plasma glucose levels and lipid profiles, avoiding smoking and alcohol drinking, psychological therapy, physical exercising, and external devices [8, 9]. Pharmacologically, it can be treated with different drugs including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is), such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil; apomorphine; and synthetic prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil), phentolamine, and papaverine [8, 10]. Of those, PDE5-Is are the most commonly suggested and used first-line treatment options in the world. However, the wide distribution of phosphodiesterase type 5 gene at various sites of the body led PDE5-Is to cause various adverse effects such as headache, myalgia, facial flushing, heartburn, nasal congestion, and vision-related problems. Moreover, disease conditions affecting the upstream nitric oxide pathways have been found with loss of efficacy [10]. Hence, it is vital to look for and find optional agents that could solve these limitations.

Since immemorial times, plants have been used as medicines to treat a myriad of human afflictions. This is because plants are a bank of bioactive compounds responsible for mitigating various disease conditions [11]. The people of Ethiopia depend heavily on medicinal plants to ease their ailments [12]. In Ethiopia, there are also more traditional healers than modern physicians [13]. Furthermore, traditional medicinal plants are considered as accessible, affordable, and acceptable in the community [14]. Around 6500 plant species are reported in the Ethiopian flora; of those, approximately 12% are endemic. In those Ethiopian floras, about 1000 plant species are identified as medicinal plants. However, the majority of the plant species are not yet identified [15]. This highlights that screening of the Ethiopian plants might grant various novel structures that might be unlikely to be discovered from other sources; ultimately, they may serve as lead compounds to fight various ailments including ED. Hence, documenting, compiling, and then assessing the effect of traditionally claimed plant species are worthwhile to come up with novel plant-based therapies.

2. Aim of the Study

The current study was carried out to systematically compile and document the traditional medicinal plants used for the management of ED or impotence in Ethiopia. The central thesis of this paper is therefore to encourage researchers to scientifically confirm the effect of medicinal plants against the global issue of ED.

3. Methods

This review was carried out following the recommendations stated in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement [16]. The search strategy flow chart is presented in Figure 1.

3.1. Search Strategy

A web-based systematic research literature search strategy was conducted through various electronic databases including PubMed (Medline), Google Scholar, and grey literature to access the relevant studies. The following search terms and combinations were used to collect relevant results: erectile dysfunction, impotence, traditional medicine, medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, indigenous, folk medicine, home remedy, herbal medicine, and Ethiopia.

3.2. Study Selection
3.2.1. Inclusion Criteria

Original published articles and thesis dissertations conducted over the period from 2000 to August 2020 were only searched. The studies written in the English language were only searched. Finally, studies with Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants exclusively utilized for the treatment of ED/impotency in humans were selected.

3.2.2. Exclusion Criteria

Articles pertaining outside Ethiopia, pharmacological studies, ethnoveterinary studies, and reviewed papers were excluded. Besides, the studies failed to mention the scientific name of the plant and the plant parts used were excluded from this study.

3.3. Data Retrieval

Studies that have possessed the required information are extracted. The required information was the family name, scientific name, local name (if available), habitat, parts used, method(s) of preparation (if available), and mode of administration. In case of missed information in some studies, especially the habitat of the plants, family name, and misspelled scientific name, information was retrieved from the Global Plants Journal of Storage (JSTOR) database [17].

3.4. Data Analysis

Microsoft Excel 2016 was employed to analyze the frequency distribution of families, plant parts, routes of administration, and habits. Besides, the distribution in regions where the medicinal plants were reported was analyzed. The results were depicted in charts and tables.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Distribution of Medicinal Plants

The regions of Ethiopia that showed the highest ethnobotanical records were Oromia (35%) and Amhara (27%) that constituted about two-thirds (62%) of the total ethnobotanical records against ED (Figure 2). Several medicinal plants have been found in the Oromia region, according to most studies. This may be because, in addition to having a large number of traditional healers, those regions are also Ethiopia’s most populous [18]. However, studies on the prevalence of ED in different regions of Ethiopia are limited.

4.2. Diversity of Medicinal Plants

As shown in Table 1, the current review reported 70 Ethiopian plant species that have traditionally been used to treat ED. The top recorded families were Fabaceae (6 species), Asteraceae (5 species), Malvaceae (5 species), Convolvulaceae (4 species), Solanaceae (4 species), and Euphorbiaceae (3 species) (Figure 3). Alike this study, Semenya and Potgieter [19] reported that Fabaceae and Asteraceae were among the commonly used families for ED. Ajao et al. [20] also stated that medicinal plants under Fabaceae were the top species used for the management of ED in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the root of Eriosema kraussianum N. E. Br., Fabaceae, displayed a promising effect for ED in experimental rat models [21]. According to a recent study in Ethiopia, plants in the Fabaceae family are the most commonly used traditional medicinal plants [18]. As a result, these studies highlight the screening of plant species belonging to the Fabaceae family that could be important candidates to bring lead compounds to be used for future optional agents.


S. no..Scientific nameFamily nameLocal nameHabitPUMethod of preparationROAReferences

1Acacia mellifera BenthFabaceaeKontir grar (Ha)TRootTaken with the root and barks of Amaranthus cruentusOral[22, 23]
2Acacia senegal (L.) WildFabaceaeNot mentionedTRootNot mentionedOral, topical[24]
3Achyranthes aspera L.AmaranthaceaeDarguu (Or)HRootNot mentionedOral[25]
4Adansonia didgitata L.BombacaceaeDima (Tg)TRootCrush, mix with honey, and eat the mixture before break fastOral[26]
5Aloe macrocarpa Tod.AloaceaeRet/eret (Am)SuLatexThe latex is mixed with butter and use it to stain the whole part of the penis and heat it with fire for continuous daysTopical[2729]
6Aloe megalacantha BakerAloaceaeEre (Tg)SuLatex/rootSmearing penis with exudateTopical[30, 31]
7Asparagus africanus Lam.AsparagaceaeKasta ansti (Tg), Sariti, Yeset qest (Am)SRoot/leaf(i) Roots are pound into powder, mixed with meat soup and vegetable, and then taken every evening for a month
(ii) Leaf powder is mixed with butter and drank for 3 days before sexual intercourse
(iii) The root together with roots of Premna schimperi and Olea europaea are pound and given to the victim with one cup of “tella” (local alcohol) 2–3 hrs before sexual works
Oral[25, 28, 3136]
8Cadaba farinosa Forssk.CapparidaceaeNot mentionedSRootNot mentionedOral[24]
9Calpurnia aurea (Aiti) Benth.FabaceaeCeekataa (Sd)SRoot/seeds(i) Root tip is chewed and the juice is drank with an alcoholic drink
(ii) Crushed, powdered, mixed with water, fermented overnight, and drank
Oral[37, 38]
10Capparis tomentosa Lam.CapparaceaeGimero (Am)SRootPowder paste with butter applied on the penis (glans)Topical[39]
11Capsicum annuum L.SolanaceaeMixxamixxoae (Ko)HFruitFruit is eatenOral[36]
12Carissa spinarum L.ApocynaceaeHagamsa (Or)SRoot/bark(i) Fresh root is pounded and mixed with “tella
(ii) Its bark and the bark of Pavetta abyssinica are mixed and then powdered, cooked, and taken orally
Oral[25, 4042]
13Carthamus lanatus L.AsteraceaeNot mentionedHLeafIt is crushed and pounded with the whole parts of Trajia cinerea and the root of Hibiscus eriospermus and then stirred in a local beer and drank in one cup of coffee until recoveryOral[43]
14Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk.CelastraceaeChat (Am)SLeafDecoctionNot mentioned[25, 39]
15Caylusea abyssinica (Fresen.) Fisch. & Mey.ResedaceaeReenci (Or)HRootDrinking the powdered root with water and/or using it for toothbrush dailyOral[32, 35]
16Chlorophytum laxum R. BrLiliaceaeMunna (Sh)HTuberTuber is eaten cookedOral[44]
17Clausena anisata (Willd.) BenthRutaceaeUlumayii (Or)SRootNot mentionedOral[25]
18Convolvulus arvensis L.ConvolvulaceaeEste filastot (Am)HRootCrush and powder then drink with GIN (areki)Oral[28]
19Crotalaria spinosa Hochst. ex BenthFabaceaeChifrig (Tg)HRootCrushing, mixing and eatOral[26]
20Drymaria cordata (L). Schultes.CaryophyllaceaeSaydasajal (Or)HRootCutting, with bulbs of Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum and then eating by spoonOral[45]
21Euclea racemosa Murr. subsp. Schimperi (A. DC.) F. WhiteEbenaceaeKulio (Tg)SRootCrush, add to the chicken stew, and eat with injera (local meal) for 7 days before the mealOral[26]
22Euphorbia tirucalli L.EuphorbiaceaeKenchib (Tig)TLatexThe fresh latex is mixed with butter and used to stain the whole part of the penis and heated for about 5 minutes for 3 daysTopical[46]
23Falkia canescens C.H. WrightConvolvulaceaeGura hantutaa (Or)HLeafCrushed, mixed with butter, and eaten for 5 daysOral[47]
24Ferula communis L.ApiaceaeDog (Am)HRootPowderize the concoction then drinks with “tellaOral[28, 48, 49]
25Ficus sur Forssk.MoraceaeHarbuu (Or)TRootNot mentionedOral[25]
26Garcinia buchananii BakerClusiaceaeSoloolsa (Sd)TBarkThe bark is peeled carefully, boiled, cooled, and drunkOral[50]
27Gloriosa superba L.ColchicaceaeYebab Mashila (Am)SRootThe root powder is taken with “tej” for 3 daysOral[51]
28Gomphocarpus stenophyllus Oliv.ApocynaceaeChifirig (Am)SRootMaceration, taken orally once daily for seven daysOral[52]
29Grewia villosa Willd.TiliaceaeNot mentionedSRootNot mentionedOral, body wash[24]
30Hibiscus eriospermusMalvaceaeNot mentionedHRootIt is the same method and ingredient used in C. lanatusOral[43]
31Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich.CrassulaceaeAndahula (Am)HRootMilk decoction of the fresh pulverized roots and leavesOral[53]
32Kleinia abyssinica (A. Rich.) A. BergerAsteraceaeAbrasha (Or)HRhizomeAphrodisiac fresh rhizome is eaten a few hours before sexual performanceOral[54]
33Lobelia gibberoa Hemsl.LobeliaceaeJibara (Am)TRootCrush and then mix with coffee and drinkOral[48]
34Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.CucurbitaceaeBuqqee/Kil (Or)HRoot/fruitThe root and fruit are ground together and drank with the first boiled coffeeOral[55]
35Maytenus senegalensis (Lam) ExellCelastraceaeKoba (Am)TBarkDried stem bark powder cooked with hen meat is given orallyOral[56]
36Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Bak.FabaceaeBirbira (Am)TRootNot mentionedOral[49]
37Nicotiana glauca Grah.SolanaceaeYeareb Kitel (Am)HLeafChewing very small pieces of leaf and swallowedOral[57]
38Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata Wall. ex G. DonOleaceaeEjersa (Or)TRootThe root together with roots of Aloe macrocarpa and Premna schimperi pounded in water and given to the victim with “tella” before bed for a few daysOral[32, 35]
39Pavonia urens Cav.MalvaceaeAblalit (Am)SRootRoot powder is taken with “tella” orallyOral[58]
40Periploca linearifolia Quart.-Dill. and A. Rich.AsclepiadaceaeTikur Areg (Am)ClRootDried or fresh root is chopped and tied on the waistTopical[59]
41Phoenix reclinata Jacq.ArecaceaeSeniel (Am)TRootNot mentionedOral[49]
42Plumbago zeylanica L.PlumbaginaceaeAmira (Am)SLeaf/rootFresh leaf crushed and mixed with waterOral[60, 61]
43Prunus Africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm.RosaceaeNot mentionedTRootFresh roots are crushed and soaked in water and then one cup is drunkOral[62]
44Ricinus communis L.EuphorbiaceaeQobbo (Or), Gullo (Am)SLeaf/seed(i) Crushed leaves with coffee, tea, or milk are taken as a drink before copulation
(ii) The dried seeds are pounded, mixed with a small quantity of latex from Aloe spp. and two coffee cups are drank before bedtime for two days
Oral[6368]
45Rosa abyssinica LindleyRosaceaeGora (Or)SRootNot mentionedOral[25]
46Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex BakerDracaenaceaeWondiekacha (Am)HRootNot mentionedOral[49]
47Sansevieria erythraeae MatteiDracaenaceaeAlgeti/cheret (Am)HRootRoot powder is taken with “tef” potageOral[58]
48Seddera bagshawei RendleConvolvulaceaeNot mentionedSRootNot mentionedNasal[24]
49Seddera hirsute Dammer ex Hall. f.ConvolvulaceaeBikiltafri (Af)SWhole/root(i) The fresh whole plant is pounded, mixed with sugar and goat’s milk, and drunk
(ii) The root is chewed
Oral[24, 69]
50Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A. Rich.MalvaceaeChifrig (Am)SRootRoots are chewed and fluid swallowedOral[70]
51Sida tenuicarpa VollesenMalvaceaeChifrig (Am)SLeafBoil leaf, mix with N. Sativa & leaf of Withania sp., A. Sativum & honey, and eat the mixture at a time of necessityOral[71]
52Sida rhombifolia L.MalvaceaeGorgegit (Am)SRootDrink concoction with honeyOral[28]
53Solanum anguivi Lam.SolanaceaeZerch enbuay (Am)SRootRoots are chewed and fluid swallowedOral[70]
54Stephania abyssinica (Quart.-Dill. & A. Rich.) Walp.MenispermaceaeHarege-eyesus (Sh)ClRootNot mentionedOral[61]
55Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. & Perry.MyrtaceaeKirunfud (Am), Qurunfudii (Or)TFruitDried fruit is crushed, mixed with goat milk, and boiled. Then, the decoction is drankOral[66]
56Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC. SubspafromontanumMyrtaceaeBadessa (Or)TBarkNot mentionedOral[25]
57Tamarindus indica L.FabaceaeNot mentionedTFruitThe fruit is chopped and taken orally with teaOral[72]
58Tapinanthus globiferus (A. Rich.) TieghemLoranthaceaeNot mentionedHLeafNot mentionedOral[24]
59Thalictrum rhynchocarpum Dill. & A. Rich.RanunculaceaeSire-bizu (Am)HRootDrink concoction with honeyOral[28]
60Tragia brevipes Pax.EuphorbiaceaeAbelbalit (Am)HWhole(i) It is the same method and ingredient used in C. lanatus
(ii) Chew and absorb the juice
Oral[28, 43, 48]
61Tragia uncinate M. GilbertEuphorbiaceaeAmae (Tg)HRootRoots are ground and taken orally with local soup for a weekOral[31]
62Urtica simensis Steudel.UrticaceaeDoobii/Saammaa (Or)HRootThe root is chewed and the extract is swallowedOral[73]
63Verbascum sinaiticum BenthScrophulariaceaeYe Ahya joro (Am), Gurra Harree (Or)HRootChopped leaf is rolled by a clean piece of cloth and tied around the male sex organ to erect itTopical[66]
64Verbena officinalis L.VerbenaceaeAtuch (Am)HRootDrink concoction with honeyOral[28]
65Vernonia adonesis Sch. Rip. ex Walp.AsteraceaePepa meta (Gu), Raskimir (Am)HRootRoot is crushed and soaked in water (maceration) and one cup is takenOral[56, 74]
66Vernonia amygdalina Del.AsteraceaeGirawa (Am)SRootDrink the concoction with “tellaOral[28]
67Vernonia myriantha Hook. f.AsteraceaeKotkoto (Am)SRootDrink the concoction with “tellaOral[28]
68Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in DCSolanaceaeGiziewa (Am)SRootDrink the concoction with “tellaOral[28]
69Zehneria scabra (Linn. f.) Sond.CucurbitaceaeHaregresa (Am)ClLeaf/rootBathe in the infusion of leaf and root for 7 daysTopical[53]
70Zingiber officinale RoscoeZingiberaceaeJinjibelloae (Ko)HRhizomeRhizomes are chewed and the exudates are swallowedOral[36]

Habits—Cl: climber; H: herb; S: shrub; Su: succulent; T: tree; Language—Af: Afar; Am: Amharic; Gu: Gumuz; Ha: Hadiyigna; Ko: Koorete; Or: Oromiffa; Sd: Sidamigna; Sh: Shinasha; Tg: Tigrigna; Endemic.
4.3. Frequently Used Medicinal Plants

The plant species that represented the highest number of citations were Asparagus africanus Lam. (8 citations), Ricinus communis L. (6 citations), and Carissa spinarum L. (4 citations), as well as Ferula communis L., Aloe macrocarpa Tod., and Tragia brevipes Pax with three citations each. Congruent to the present study, the people of Nigeria also traditionally use the root of Asparagus africanus Lam. for the management of ED [75]. The usage of this plant for the treatment of ED might be due to the presence of saponins [76], because plant species with saponins as their major constituent displayed significant promotion of erection [77]. The second most cited plant species is Ricinus communis L. (also known as castor bean). Recent in vivo studies of Ricinus communis L. have confirmed that it increases serum testosterone levels and multiple majors of sexual activity, supporting the current conventional claim [78]. The third cited plant, Carissa spinarum L., alike the Ethiopian people, the people of South and Central Benin use its roots for the treatment of sexual weakness. As a result, scientific evaluation of these claimed species is needed in order to uncover important leads in the fight against ED.

Plant species like Syzygium aromaticum L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and Gloriosa superba L are traditionally claimed in Ethiopia; they scientifically displayed significant aphrodisiac effect. That is, 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum L., (oral; 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg to rats) improved libido and erection, intromission frequency, mounting behavior, and mating performance [79, 80]. Hexane extract of the flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) (oral; 15 mg/kg to mice) raised delta (5) 3-beta and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (, 3 β-HSD, and 17 β-HSD) and serum levels of testosterone [81]. Aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (oral; 600 mg/kg to male Wistar rats) was tested for its possible androgenic activity and increased testis relative weight, serum testosterone, testicular cholesterol, and epididymal α-glucosidase activity [82]. Aqueous, chloroform, and alcohol extracts of Gloriosa superba at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed an aphrodisiac effect with an increase in sexual and orientation behavior. Its aphrodisiac effect could be due to the presence of steroids, saponins, and alkaloids [83]. Hence, these studies support the acclaimed use of these plant species as a treatment for sexual dysfunction in Ethiopia.

These days, in Ethiopia, the continuation of traditional plant remedies is highly threatened due to deforestation, overgrazing, environmental degradation, agricultural expansion, and the rise of the population [15]. This, in turn, jeopardizes the extinction of essential medicinal plants which may have stored indispensable compounds that are responsible for addressing the existing global health issues. Therefore, early detection of the pharmacological activities of the reported species against ED is strongly recommended.

4.4. Growth Forms of the Medicinal Plants

The growth forms of the reported species were herb (37%), shrub (34%), tree (22%), climber (4%), and succulent (3%) (Figure 4). This study is consistent with studies conducted by Worku [12] and Yirgu et al. [18] who reported that herbs were the most dominant plant growth forms as well as used as remedies in the Ethiopian traditional medicine. The highest use of herbaceous plants as compared to other growth forms could be due to their accessibility, the higher possibility of obtaining pharmacologically active compounds, and the sociocultural beliefs and practices of the healers in treating the ailment [84].

4.5. Plant Parts Used

The most common plant part used was root (41 species), followed by leaves (7 species), fruit (3 species), and bark (3 species) (Figure 5). Similarly, in another study, it was reported that the root was the predominant plant part used for the management of ED [85]. The people of South Africa, Limpopo province, also use roots as the most preferred medicinal plant part [19]. In contrast to this study, the people of Western Uganda use leaves as the commonest plant part for ED [86]. Irrespective of the dominancy, however, confirming the pharmacological activity of the claimed plant part is necessary, because most plant parts reside several bioactive principles.

4.6. Mode of Administration

The most common route of administration of the medicinal plants was oral (86%), followed by topical (10%), oral/topical (3%), and nasal (1%) (Figure 6). In agreement with this study, Semenya and Potgieter [19] mentioned the oral route as the dominant route for ED. The commonly reported cosolvents were “tella (local drink)” (8 species), butter, honey (5 species), and coffee (4 species).

5. Conclusion

The present review compiles and documents for the first time seventy (70) medicinal plant species used for the management of ED in Ethiopia. Fabaceae was the dominant plant family used for the management of ED in Ethiopia. Asparagus africanus was the most repeatedly cited plant species against ED. Plant species like Syzygium aromaticum L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and Gloriosa superba L. are traditionally claimed in Ethiopia; they scientifically displayed significant aphrodisiac effect. This suggests the reported plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against ED. Thus, the current findings may serve as references for the selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological, and phytochemical investigations in developing new plant-based drugs used for the treatment of ED.

Abbreviations

ED:Erectile dysfunction
PDE5-Is:Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors.

Data Availability

The datasets used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflicts of Interest

All authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Authors’ Contributions

DA designed and developed the first drafted manuscript. THK and TYA screened genuinely, if there are any missed relevant articles. DZW, DMD, and GGT reviewed and edited the whole manuscript. Finally, all authors reviewed and approved the manuscript.

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