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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 99-108


A. J. Lees

National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1 3BG, UK

Copyright © 1990 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tics are an incontinent form of non-verbal communication associated with obsessional and aggressive urges and anxiety. The motor phenomena seen in socially acceptable forms of emotional release are compared and contrasted with tics. It is proposed that brain dysfunction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome involves frontal limbic and basal ganglia loops.