Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Behavioural Neurology
Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 197-204
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1999/639045

Neurological Soft Signs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Standardised Assessment and Comparison with Schizophrenia

D. Bolton,1 W. Gibb,2 A. Lees,3 P. Raven,4 J. A. Gray,1 E. Chen,5 and R. Shafran6

1Psychology Department, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
2Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK
3National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
4Department of Psychological Medicine, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
5Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
6Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK

Received 1 April 1999; Accepted 1 April 1999

Copyright © 1999 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [39 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Scott Greisberg, and Dean McKay, “Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review and treatment implications,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 95–117, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Levent Sevincok, Aybars Akoglu, Beyza Topaloglu, and Hulya Aslantas, “Neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 274–279, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ke Anderson, and Cr Savage, “Cognitive and neurobiological findings in obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 37–+, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ak Kuelz, F Hohagen, and U Voderholzer, “Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review,” Biological Psychology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 185–236, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • N Lindberg, P Tani, Jh Stenberg, B Appelberg, T Porkka-Heiskanen, and M Virkkunen, “Neurological soft signs in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder,” European Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 433–437, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R Mergl, P Mavrogiorgou, G Juckel, M Zaudig, and U Hegerl, “Effects of sertraline on kinematic aspects of hand movements in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 179–185, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R Mergl, and U Hegerl, “Neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (Review article),” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 504–516, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R Mergl, P Mavrogiorgou, G Juckel, M Zaudig, and U Hegerl, “Can a subgroup of OCD patients with motor abnormalities and poor therapeutic response be identified?,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 826–837, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark Walterfang, and Dennis Velakoulis, “Cortical release signs in psychiatry,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 317–327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • I Bombin, C Arango, and Rw Buchanan, “Significance and meaning of neurological signs in schizophrenia: Two decades later,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 962–977, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark Walterfang, and Dennis Velakoulis, “Cortical release signs in psychiatry,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 317–327, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Linda C.W. Lam, Victor W.C. Lui, Helen F.K. Chiu, Sandra S.M. Chan, and Cindy W.C. Tam, “Executive Function Impairment in Community Elderly Subjects with Questionable Dementia,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 19, no. 2-3, pp. 86–90, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Emma Barkus, John Stirling, Richard Hopkins, and Shon Lewis, “The presence of neurological soft signs along the psychosis proneness continuum,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 573–577, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Levent Sevincok, Aybars Akoglu, and Hulya Arslantas, “Schizo-obsessive and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison of clinical characteristics and neurological soft signs,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 145, no. 2-3, pp. 241–248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M.-O. Krebs, and S. Mouchet, “Signes neurologiques mineurs et schizophrénie : revue des données actuelles,” Revue Neurologique, vol. 163, no. 12, pp. 1157–1168, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raymond C. K. Chan, and Irving I. Gottesman, “Neurological soft signs as candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia: A shooting star or a Northern star?,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 957–971, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christopher J. Christian, Todd Lencz, Delbert G. Robinson, Katherine Burdick, Manzar Ashtari, Anil K. Malhotra, Julia D. Betensky, and Philip R. Szeszko, “Gray matter structural alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Relationship to neuropsychological functions,” Psychiatry Research-Neuroimaging, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 123–131, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Peter F. Whitty, Olabisi Owoeye, and John L. Waddington, “Neurological Signs and Involuntary Movements in Schizophrenia: Intrinsic To and Informative on Systems Pathobiology,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 415–424, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ting Xu, R. Walter Heinrichs, Yue Yu, and Ya Wang, “Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1089–1104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Mayoral, Jessica Merchan-Naranjo, Marta Rapado, Marta Leiva, Carmen Moreno, Marisa Giraldez, Celso Arango, and Mara Parellada, “Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls,” Early Intervention in Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 283–290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Filiz Karadag, Selim Tumkaya, Duygu Kirtas, Muharrem Efe, Huseyin Alacam, and Nalan K. Oguzhanoglu, “Neurological soft signs in obsessive compulsive disorder with good and poor insight,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1074–1079, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • N. Jaafari, L. Fernández de la Cruz, M. Grau, E. Knowles, J. Radua, S. Wooderson, C. Segalas, P. Alonso, M. L. Phillips, J. M. Menchón, and D. Mataix-Cols, “Neurological soft signs in obsessive-compulsive disorder: two empirical studies and meta-analysis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 43, no. 05, pp. 1069–1079, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. Tumkaya, F. Karadag, and N. K. Oguzhanoglu, “Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum,” European Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 192–199, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zi-wen Peng, Ting Xu, Guo-dong Miao, Qing-huan He, Qing Zhao, Paola Dazzan, and Raymond C.K. Chan, “Neurological soft signs in obsessive–compulsive disorder: The effect of co-morbid psychosis and evidence for familiality,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 200–205, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michael Davidovitch, and Yulia Golland, “Sensory and motor secondary symptoms as indicators of brain vulnerability,” Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, vol. 5, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Milena Korostenskaja, Elana Harris, Cathy Giovanetti, Paul Horn, Yingying Wang, Douglas Rose, Hisako Fujiwara, and Jing Xiang, “Magnetoencephalography reveals altered auditory information processing in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Psychiatry Research-Neuroimaging, vol. 212, no. 2, pp. 132–140, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Cai, Xiongzhao Zhu, Jinyao Yi, Mei Bai, Mengcheng Wang, Yuping Wang, Muli Hu, and Shuqiao Yao, “Neurological Soft Signs and Their Relationship with Measures of Executive Function in Chinese Adolescents,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 197–203, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dusan Hirjak, Robert Christian Wolf, Sabine C. Koch, Laura Mehl, Janna K. Kelbel, Katharina Maria Kubera, Tanja Traeger, Thomas Fuchs, and Philipp Arthur Thomann, “Neurological Abnormalities in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Asperger-Syndrome,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 5, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dusan Hirjak, Robert C. Wolf, Einar P. Wilder-Smith, Katharina M. Kubera, and Philipp A. Thomann, “Motor Abnormalities and Basal Ganglia in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging,” Brain Topography, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mary L. Phillips, and David Mataix-Cols, “Patterns of Neural Response to Emotive Stimuli Distinguish the Different Symptom Dimensions of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder,” CNS Spectrums, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 275–283, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Galen Chin-Lun Hung, Jill Hahn, Bibi Alamiri, Stephen L Buka, Jill M Goldstein, Nan Laird, Charles A Nelson, Jordan W Smoller, and Stephen E Gilman, “Socioeconomic disadvantage and neural development from infancy through early childhood,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1889–1899, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raymond C. K. Chan, Weizhen Xie, Fu-lei Geng, Ya Wang, Simon S. Y. Lui, Chuan-yue Wang, Xin Yu, Eric F. C. Cheung, and Robert Rosenthal, “Clinical Utility and Lifespan Profiling of Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, pp. sbv196, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sonia Malhotra, Pankaj B. Borade, Pradeep Sharma, Yogesh Satija, and Gunjan, “A qualititative study of neurological soft signs in obsessive compulsive disorder and effect of comorbid psychotic spectrum disorders and familiality on its expression in Indian population,” Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Omer Faruk Demirel, Aysegul Demirel, Muhammed Tayyib Kadak, Murat Emül, and Alaattin Duran, “Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 240, pp. 248–252, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ufuk ?e?meci, Rabia Nazik Y?ksel, Hasan Kaya, and Nesrin Dilbaz, “Schizotypality and neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive?compulsive disorder,” Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, pp. 1–7, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Judit Szalai, “The Sense of Agency in OCD,” Review of Philosophy and Psychology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 363–380, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zafer Tapancı, Abdullah Yıldırım, and Murat Boysan, “Neurological soft signs, dissociation and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy subjects,” Psychiatry Research, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Stefan Fritze, Fabio Sambataro, Katharina M. Kubera, and Robert C. Wolf, “Motor dysfunction as research domain across bipolar, obsessive-compulsive and neurodevelopmental disorders,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ines Taddei, Martina Valentini, and Massimo Pasquini, “The Obsessive-Compulsive Dimension,” Dimensional Psychopathology, pp. 233–265, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar