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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 14, Issue 3-4, Pages 63-74

The Association between Negative and Dysexecutive Syndromes in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Cultural Study

H. Ihara,1 G. E. Berrios,1 and P. J. McKenna2

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK
2Cambridge Psychiatric Rehabilitation Service, Fulbourn Hospital, Cambridge, UK

Received 16 December 2003; Accepted 16 December 2003

Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper examined the relationship between the ‘negative syndrome’ (NS) and the neuropsychological ‘dysexecutive syndrome’ (DES) in schizophrenia. The study also examined whether any relationship that exists between the NS and the DES holds equally for British and Japanese subjects. We compared 26 Japanese with 17 British schizophrenic patients, divided into ‘mild’ and ‘severe’ NS groups, on the basis of performance on neuropsychological tests, including the ‘Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome’ (BADS). We found that patients with severe NS showed more everyday executive deficits than those with mild NS. The severity of NS was correlated with executive competence. The association between NS and the BADS performance was closer than that between NS and other conventional executive measures. These findings were not influenced by cultural differences between Japanese and British subjects, and, hence, suggested the existence of culture-neutral neurobehavioural processes.