Jay Guido Capone, Sergio Della Sala, Hans Spinnler, Annalena Venneri, "Upper and Lower Face and Ideomotor Apraxia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease", Behavioural Neurology, vol. 14, Article ID 518959, 8 pages, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1155/2003/518959
Upper and Lower Face and Ideomotor Apraxia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Introduction: Apraxia of face movement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been rarely investigated. This study aimed at investigating the frequency of lower (mouth, tongue and throat) and upper (eyes and eyebrows) face apraxia, in AD and its relationship with limb apraxia and severity of dementia.Methods: Fifty seven patients with AD were tested with a new standardised test of face apraxia including upper and lower face movements, which uses an item-difficulty weigthed scoring procedure, the IMA test, a test of ideomotor apraxia and the M.O.D.A., a means to assess dementia severity.Results: Thirteen (23%) and 19 (33%) participants were below cut-off respectively on the upper and lower face apraxia test. Both sections of the Face Apraxia Test correlated significantly with the Ideomotor Apraxia Test. However, double dissociations between different types of apraxia were observed. Both the upper and lower face apraxia tests correlated significantly with the measure of dementia severity.Conclusions: The finding show that a proportion of AD patients fails face apraxia tests. Their face apraxia is interlinked with ideomotor limb apraxia, although dissociations are possible. Severity of dementia deterioration accounts for a good proportion of the variability of AD patients’ performance on face apraxia tests.
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