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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 18 (2007), Issue 2, Pages 99-114

Parietal Dysgraphia: Characterization of Abnormal Writing Stroke Sequences, Character Formation and Character Recall

Yasuhisa Sakurai,1,2 Yoshinobu Onuma,1 Gaku Nakazawa,1 Yoshikazu Ugawa,2 Toshimitsu Momose,3 Shoji Tsuji,2 and Toru Mannen1

1Department of Neurology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
2Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
3Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Received 25 May 2007; Accepted 25 May 2007

Copyright © 2007 Hindawi Publishing Corporation and the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective: To characterize various dysgraphic symptoms in parietal agraphia.

Method: We examined the writing impairments of four dysgraphia patients from parietal lobe lesions using a special writing test with 100 character kanji (Japanese morphograms) and their kana (Japanese phonetic writing) transcriptions, and related the test performance to a lesion site.

Results: Patients 1 and 2 had postcentral gyrus lesions and showed character distortion and tactile agnosia, with patient 1 also having limb apraxia. Patients 3 and 4 had superior parietal lobule lesions and features characteristic of apraxic agraphia (grapheme deformity and a writing stroke sequence disorder) and character imagery deficits (impaired character recall). Agraphia with impaired character recall and abnormal grapheme formation were more pronounced in patient 4, in whom the lesion extended to the inferior parietal, superior occipital and precuneus gyri.

Conclusion: The present findings and a review of the literature suggest that: (i) a postcentral gyrus lesion can yield graphemic distortion (somesthetic dysgraphia), (ii) abnormal grapheme formation and impaired character recall are associated with lesions surrounding the intraparietal sulcus, the symptom being more severe with the involvement of the inferior parietal, superior occipital and precuneus gyri, (iii) disordered writing stroke sequences are caused by a damaged anterior intraparietal area.