In order to assess the capacity of neurological patients to process syntactic features unique to Korean, such as the heavy dependence of parsing on syntactic morphemes rather than the word order in a sentence, the Korean Syntactic Comprehension Test (KSCT) was newly developed. To examine the correlation between lesion locations and the test performance, we did voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis in a group of 39 patients with ischemic stroke. As a result, KSCT scores of the aphasic patients were significantly lower than those of 18 normal subjects. Within the patient group, VLSM analysis showed significant association between lower KSCT performance and the lesions mainly located in left perisylvian area and anterior temporal lobe. The KSCT results were also closely correlated with the results of two subtests in the Korean version-the Western Aphasia Battery. We conclude therefore that brain localization of syntactic comprehension in Korean native speakers is similar to that in other language speakers, despite the unique features of the Korean syntax, and that the KSCT will be of diagnostic value in assessing left fronto-temporal functions in Korean patients.