Behavioural Neurology

Behavioural Neurology / 2013 / Article
Special Issue

Researching Tourette Syndrome in Europe

View this Special Issue

Open Access

Volume 27 |Article ID 376590 | https://doi.org/10.3233/BEN-120294

Heike Eichele, Kerstin J. Plessen, "Neural Plasticity in Functional and Anatomical MRI Studies of Children with Tourette Syndrome", Behavioural Neurology, vol. 27, Article ID 376590, 13 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.3233/BEN-120294

Neural Plasticity in Functional and Anatomical MRI Studies of Children with Tourette Syndrome

Received23 Nov 2012
Accepted23 Nov 2012

Abstract

Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms.Methods: We conducted a systematic search to identify existing imaging studies (both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in young persons under the age of 19 years with TS.Results: The final search resulted in 13 original studies, which were reviewed with a focus on findings suggesting adaptive processes (using fMRI) and plasticity (using anatomical MRI). Differences in brain activation compared to healthy controls during tasks that require overriding of prepotent responses help to understand compensatory pathways in children with TS. Along with alterations in regions putatively representing the origin of tics, deviations in several other regions most likely represent an activity-dependent neural plasticity that help to modulate tic severity, such as the prefrontal cortex, but also in the corpus callosum and the limbic system.Discussion: Factors that potentially influence the development of adaptive changes in the brain of children with TS are age, comorbidity with other developmental disorders, medication use, IQ along with study-design or MRI techniques for acquisition, and analysis of data. The most prominent limitation of all studies is their cross-sectional design. Longitudinal studies extending to younger age groups and to children at risk for developing TS hopefully will confirm findings of neural plasticity in future investigations.

Copyright © 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation and the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views834
Downloads748
Citations

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.