Table 2: Summary of the studies on rTMS in the treatment of alcohol addiction.

Study subjects (active, sham)Alcohol use statusPlace of stimulationNumber of sessionsLength FrequencyIntensity of stimulationSham stimulationAssessmentFindings

Mishra et al. (2010) [51]30, 15After detoxificationRight DLPFC10 daily sessions20 trains of 4.9 s10 Hz110% MTYesCraving, assessed by ACQ-NOWReduction in immediate craving; no effect on craving after 4 weeks

Höppner et al. (2011) [53]10, 9
14 days after detoxificationLeft DLPFC10 daily sessions1000 pulses20 Hz90% MTYesCraving, assessed by OCDS; depressive symptoms, assessed by BDI; AB for neutral and alcohol related picturesNo reduction in craving and no effect on mood; increase AB for alcohol related pictures

Herremans et al. (2012) [52]36After detoxificationRight DLPFC1 session40 trains of 1.9 s20 Hz110% MTYesCraving, assessed by OCDSNo effect on immediate and long-term craving

de Ridder et al. (2011) [54]1
Active drinking perioddACC daily sessions during 5 weeks600 pulses1 Hz50% machine outputNoCraving, assessed by VASReduction in immediate craving and consumption; relapse after 3 months with increased craving after 3 months

DLPFC: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; dACC: Dorsal anterior cingulated cortex; MT: motor threshold; VAS: visual analogue scale; ACQ-NOW: Alcohol Craving Questionnaire; OCDS: obsessive compulsive drinking scale; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; AB: attentional blink.