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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2015, Article ID 329241, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/329241
Research Article

Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2–5 Years after Injury

1Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare-Central Norway, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2Division of Mental Healthcare, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
3Children’s Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
4MI Lab and Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, St. Olavs Hospital Trondheim University Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
6Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
7Neuroclinic, Department of Neurosurgery, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
8Department of Public Health and General Practice, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children and Women’s Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
9Department of Physiotherapy, Trondheim Municipality, Norway
10Child Neuropsychology, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
11Department of Pediatrics and School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
12Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
13Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, 0373 Oslo, Norway

Received 25 June 2015; Accepted 1 September 2015

Academic Editor: John H. Zhang

Copyright © 2015 Torun Gangaune Finnanger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group . Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors.