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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2015, Article ID 620674, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/620674
Review Article

Psychological Benefits of Nonpharmacological Methods Aimed for Improving Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

1International Clinical Research Center (ICRC), St. Anne’s University Hospital, Pekařská 53, 656 91 Brno, Czech Republic
2First Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, St. Anne’s University Hospital, Pekařská 53, 656 91 Brno, Czech Republic
3Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Behavioural and Social Neuroscience Research Group, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Received 19 February 2015; Revised 7 June 2015; Accepted 10 June 2015

Academic Editor: Karsten Witt

Copyright © 2015 Rastislav Šumec et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a serious condition with a major negative impact on patient’s physical and mental health. Postural instability is one of the cardinal difficulties reported by patients to deal with. Neuroanatomical, animal, and clinical studies on nonparkinsonian and parkinsonian subjects suggest an important correlation between the presence of balance dysfunction and multiple mood disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and apathy. Considering that balance dysfunction is a very common symptom in PD, we can presume that by its management we could positively influence patient’s state of mind too. This review is an analysis of nonpharmacological methods shown to be effective and successful for improving balance in patients suffering from PD. Strategies such as general exercise, robotic assisted training, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Yoga, dance (such as tango or ballet), box, virtual reality-based, or neurofeedback-based techniques and so forth can significantly improve the stability in these patients. Beside this physical outcome, many methods have also shown effect on quality of life, depression level, enjoyment, and motivation to continue in practicing the method independently. The purpose of this review is to provide information about practical and creative methods designed to improve balance in PD and highlight their positive impact on patient’s psychology.