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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2016, Article ID 2964712, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2964712
Research Article

Neuroprotective Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bilateral Common Carotid Arteries Occlusion Model of Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

1Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
2Neurophysiology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
3Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4Cell Therapy Division of Endometrium and Endometriosis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
5Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran
6Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
7Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
8Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 3 June 2016; Revised 7 August 2016; Accepted 7 September 2016

Academic Editor: Tauheed Ishrat

Copyright © 2016 Bagher Pourheydar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cell therapy is the most advanced treatment of the cerebral ischemia, nowadays. Herein, we discuss the neuroprotective effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on rat hippocampal cells following intravenous injection of these cells in an ischemia-reperfusion model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham (surgery without blockage of common carotid arteries), ischemia (common carotid arteries were blocked for 30 min prior to reperfusion), vehicle (7 days after ischemia PBS was injected via the tail vein), and treatment (injections of BMSC into the tail veins 7 days after ischemia). We performed neuromuscular and vestibulomotor function tests to assess behavioral function and, finally, brains were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), anti-Brdu immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. The ischemia group had severe apoptosis. The group treated with BMSCs had a lower mortality rate and also had significant improvement in functional recovery (). Ischemia-reperfusion for 30 min causes damage and extensive neuronal death in the hippocampus, especially in CA1 and CA3 regions, leading to several functional and neurological deficits. In conclusion, intravenous injection of BMSCs can significantly decrease the number of apoptotic neurons and significantly improve functional recovery, which may be a beneficial treatment method for ischemic injuries.