Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2016, Article ID 3730940, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3730940
Clinical Study

The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

1Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka 1209, Bangladesh
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

Received 3 March 2016; Revised 12 May 2016; Accepted 7 June 2016

Academic Editor: João Quevedo

Copyright © 2016 Zahid Sadek Chowdhury et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. CIA The World FactBook, 2015, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html.
  2. RxList, “Top 200 prescriptions for 2014 by number of US prescriptions dispensed,” 2014, http://symphonyhealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Top-200-Drugs-of-2014.pdf.
  3. D. J. Greenblatt and C. E. Wright, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of alprazolam: therapeutic implications,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 453–471, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Bandelow, D. S. Baldwin, and P. Zwanzger, “Pharmacological treatment of panic disorder,” Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 29, pp. 128–143, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. U. E. Busto, H. L. Kaplan, C. E. Wright et al., “A comparative pharmacokinetic and dynamic evaluation of alprazolam sustained-release, bromazepam, and lorazepam,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 628–635, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Rimon, E.-R. Kultalahti, A. Kalli et al., “Alprazolam and oxazepam in the treatment of anxious out-patients with depressive symptoms: a double-blind multicenter study,” Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 81–84, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. B. Cohn and C. S. Wilcox, “Long-term comparison of alprazolam, lorazepam and placebo in patients with an anxiety disorder,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 93–98, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Hoehn-Saric, D. R. McLeod, and W. D. Zimmerli, “Differential effects of alprazolam and imipramine in generalized anxiety disorder: somatic versus psychic symptoms,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 293–301, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. R. McLeod, R. Hoehn-Saric, W. D. Zimmerli, E. B. De Souza, and L. K. Oliver, “Treatment effects of alprazolam and imipramine: physiological versus subjective changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 849–861, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Enkelmann, “Alprazolam versus buspirone in the treatment of outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 428–432, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. S. Kolin and O. I. Linet, “Double-blind comparison of alprazolam and diazepam for subchronic withdrawal from alcohol,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 169–173, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Casacalenda and J.-P. Boulenger, “Pharmacologic treatments effective in both generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder: clinical and theoretical implications,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 722–730, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Petty, M. H. Trivedi, M. Fulton, and A. John Rush, “Benzodiazepines as antidepressants: does GABA play a role in depression?” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 578–591, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. P. Hart, C. C. Colenda, and R. M. Hamer, “Effects of buspirone and alprazolam on the cognitive performance of normal elderly subjects,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 73–77, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Scavone, D. J. Greenblatt, J. E. Goddard, H. Friedman, J. S. Harmatz, and R. I. Shader, “The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sublingual and oral alprazolam in the post-prandial state,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 439–443, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. J. Greenblatt and C. E. Wright, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of alprazolam,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 453–471, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. Kristjánsson, “Disposition of alprazolam in human volunteers. Differences between genders,” Acta Pharmaceutica Nordica, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 249–250, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. M. Iqbal, T. Sobhan, and T. Ryals, “Effects of commonly used benzodiazepines on the fetus, the neonate, and the nursing infant,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. J. Greenblatt, M. Divoll, D. R. Abernethy, L. J. Moschitto, R. B. Smith, and R. I. Shader, “Alprazolam kinetics in the elderly. Relation to antipyrine disposition,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 287–290, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. J. Greenblatt, J. S. Harmatz, and R. I. Shader, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of anxiolytics and hypnotics in the elderly. Therapeutic considerations (Part I),” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 165–177, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. C. Verster and E. R. Volkerts, “Clinical pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and behavioral toxicity of Alprazolam: a review of the literature,” CNS Drug Reviews, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 45–76, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. J. Reissig, J. A. Harrison, L. P. Carter, and R. R. Griffiths, “Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 232, no. 5, pp. 871–883, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 2011.
  24. B. Albrecht, P. K. Staiger, K. Hall, P. Miller, D. Best, and D. I. Lubman, “Benzodiazepine use and aggressive behaviour: a systematic review,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1096–1114, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. J. Ancill, W. W. Carlyle, R. A. Liang, and S. G. Holliday, “Agitation in the demented elderly: a role for benzodiazepines?” International Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 141–146, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. D. Finkle, J. S. Der, S. Greenland et al., “Risk of fractures requiring hospitalization after an initial prescription for zolpidem, alprazolam, lorazepam, or diazepam in older adults,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1883–1890, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Pokharel, M. Tripathi, P. K. Gupta, B. Bhattarai, S. Khatiwada, and A. Subedi, “Premedication with oral alprazolam and melatonin combination: a comparison with either alone—a randomized controlled factorial trial,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 356964, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. E. Buffett-Jerrott and S. H. Stewart, “Cognitive and sedative effects of benzodiazepine use,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 45–58, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. C. Verster, E. R. Volkerts, and M. N. Verbaten, “Effects of alprazolam on driving ability, memory functioning and psychomotor performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 260–269, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. R. M. Leufkens, A. Vermeeren, B. E. Smink, P. van Ruitenbeek, and J. G. Ramaekers, “Cognitive, psychomotor and actual driving performance in healthy volunteers after immediate and extended release formulations of alprazolam 1 mg,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 191, no. 4, pp. 951–959, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. H. O'Sullivan, H. Noshirvani, M. Basoglu et al., “Safety and side-effects of alprazolam. Controlled study in agoraphobia with panic disorder,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, pp. 79–86, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Pomara, H. Tun, D. DaSilva, R. Hernando, D. Deptula, and D. J. Greenblatt, “The acute and chronic performance effects of alprazolam and lorazepam in the elderly: relationship to duration of treatment and self-rated sedation,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 139–153, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  33. K. Aranko, M. J. Mattila, and D. Bordignon, “Psychomotor effects of alprazolam and diazepam during acute and subacute treatment, and during the follow-up phase,” Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 364–372, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. B. Smith and P. D. Kroboth, “Influence of dosing regimen on alprazolam and metabolite serum concentrations and tolerance to sedative and psychomotor effects,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 105–112, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Kumar, D. S. Mac, W. F. Gabrielli Jr., and D. W. Goodwin, “Anxiolytics and memory: a comparison of lorazepam and alprazolam,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 158–160, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. L. Jurado, R. Fernández-Mas, and A. Fernández-Guardiola, “Effects of 1 week administration of two benzodiazepines on the sleep and early daytime performance of normal subjects,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 91–93, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Bourin, M.-C. Colombel, and B. Guitton, “Alprazolam 0.125 mg twice a day improves aspects of psychometric performance in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 364–372, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. S. Kim, Y. M. An, J. S. Kwon, and M.-S. Shin, “A preliminary validity study of the cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery for the assessment of executive function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder,” Psychiatry Investigation, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 394–401, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. J. Smith, A. C. Need, E. T. Cirulli, O. Chiba-Falek, and D. K. Attix, “A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with ‘traditional’ neuropsychological testing instruments,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 319–328, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. S. Bin Sayeed, M. Asaduzzaman, H. Morshed, M. M. Hossain, M. F. Kadir, and M. R. Rahman, “The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 780–786, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Tasnim, P. S. Haque, M. S. Bari et al., “Allium sativum L. improves visual memory and attention in healthy human volunteers,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 103416, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Akter, M. R. Hassan, M. Shahriar, N. Akter, M. G. Abbas, and M. A. Bhuiyan, “Cognitive impact after short-term exposure to different proton pump inhibitors: assessment using CANTAB software,” Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, vol. 7, article 79, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Kuzmickienė and G. Kaubrys, “Cognitive results of CANTAB tests and their change due to the first dose of donepezil may predict treatment efficacy in alzheimer disease,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 21, pp. 3887–3899, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. Vaca-Palomares, R. Díaz, R. Rodríguez-Labrada et al., “Strategy use, planning, and rule acquisition deficits in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patients,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 214–220, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. H. Pietrzak, J. C. Scott, B. T. Harel, Y. Y. Lim, P. J. Snyder, and P. Maruff, “A process-based approach to characterizing the effect of acute alprazolam challenge on visual paired associate learning and memory in healthy older adults,” Human Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 549–558, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. Subhan, C. Harrison, and I. Hindmarch, “Alprazolam and lorazepam single and multiple-dose effects on psychomotor skills and sleep,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 709–712, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. N. Stephans, “A glutamatergic hypothesis of drug dependence,” Behavioral Pharmacology, vol. 6, pp. 425–446, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  48. K. G. Steppuhn and L. Turski, “Diazepam dependence prevented by glutamate antagonists,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 14, pp. 6889–6893, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Brousse, B. Arnaud, F. Vorspan et al., “Alteration of glutamate/GABA balance during acute alcohol withdrawal in emergency department: a prospective analysis,” Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 47, no. 5, Article ID ags078, pp. 501–508, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. L. Prior and J. C. F. Galduróz, “Glutamatergic hyperfunctioning during alcohol withdrawal syndrome: therapeutic perspective with zinc and magnesium,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 368–370, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. J. Barker, K. M. Greenwood, M. Jackson, and S. F. Crowe, “Persistence of cognitive effects after withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use: a meta-analysis,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 437–454, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus