(a)
(b)
Figure 4: (a) The sequence of the 5 positive and negative waves composing the JVP, propagating the heart pressure upward the jugular vein. (b) Noninvasive ultrasonic assessment of JVP (black line) perfectly synchronized with the ECG trace (red line) and with the carotid artery distension wave (yellow line). The traces are derived by a high resolution B-mode video clip connected to an ECG. Their quantification allows a noninvasive assessment of the heart-brain axis.