Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5952897, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5952897
Research Article

Neuroprotective and Antiamnesic Effects of Mitragyna inermis Willd (Rubiaceae) on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, P.O. Box 454, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
2Institute of Mines and Petroleum Industries, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 46, Maroua, Cameroon
3Department of Zoology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon
4Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon
5Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon
6Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
7Center of Medical Research, Institute of Medical Research and Medical Plants Studies, P.O. Box 6163, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Correspondence should be addressed to David Bougolla Pahaye; rf.oohay@eyahapdivad

Received 16 June 2016; Revised 21 December 2016; Accepted 10 January 2017; Published 12 March 2017

Academic Editor: Shyam S. Sharma

Copyright © 2017 David Bougolla Pahaye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Dhingra, M. Parle, and S. K. Kulkarni, “Genetic basis of Alzheimer’s disease,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 409–413, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. Dhingra, M. Parle, and S. K. Kulkarni, “Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice,” Journal Ethnopharmacology, vol. 91, no. 2–3, pp. 361–365, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Joshi and M. Parle, “Evaluation of the antiamnesic effects of Phyllanthus amarus in mice,” Colombia Médica, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 132–139, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  4. J. A. Deutsch, “The cholinergic synapse and the site of memory,” Science, vol. 174, no. 4011, pp. 88–794, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Patel and P. N. Tariot, “Pharmacologic models of Alzheimer’s disease,” The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 287–308, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. M. Rupniak, M. J. Steventon, M. J. Field, C. A. Jennings, and S. D. Iversen, “Comparison of the effects of four cholinomimetic agents on cognition in primates following disruption by scopolamine or by lists of objects,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 189–195, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Christensen, N. Maltby, A. F. Jorm, H. Creasey, and G. A. Broe, “Cholinergic ‘blockade’ as a model of the cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease,” Brain, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1681–1699, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. U. Ebert and W. Kirch, “Scopolamine model of dementia: electroencephalogram findings and cognitive performance,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 944–949, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Schever, A. Rostock, P. Bartsch, and W. K. Muller, “Piracetam improved cognitive performance by restoring neurochemical deficits of the aged rat brain,” Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. B. Croisile, M. Trillet, J. Fondarai, B. Laurent, F. Mauguiare, and M. Billardon, “Long-term and high-dose piracetam treatment of Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 301–305, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. L. Parnetti, U. Senin, and P. Mecocci, “Cognitive enhancement therapy for Alzheimer’s disease,” Drugs, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 752–768, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. D. G. Blazer, C. F. Federspiel, W. A. Ray, and W. Schaffner, “The risk of anticholinergic toxicity in the elderly—a study of prescribing practices in two populations,” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. T. Ngoupaye, E. Ngo Bum, and W. M. U. Daniels, “Antidepressant-like effects of the aqueous macerate of the bulb of Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (Iridaceae) in a rat model of epilepsy-associated depression,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, pp. 272–289, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. G. Sahib, N. Saari, A. Ismail, A. Khatib, F. Mahomoodally, and A. A. Hamid, “Plants’ metabolites as potential antiobesity agents,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 436039, p. 8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. J. Shellard and A. Wade, “The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of Mitragyna inermis (Willd) O. Kuntze,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 21, pp. 102–112, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. G. Konkon, A. L. Adjoungoua, P. Manda, D. Simaga, K. E. N’Guessan, and B. D. Kone, “Toxicological and phytochemical screening study of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O ktze (Rubiaceae), anti diabetic plant,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 279–284, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. O. Igoli, O. G. Ogaji, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, and N. P. Igoli, “Traditional medicine practice amongst the Igede people of Nigeria. Part II,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 134–152, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Arbonnier, Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d’Afrique de l’Ouest, vol. 542, CIRAD, MNHN, UICN, 2000.
  19. F. Traore, M. Gasquet, M. Laget et al., “Toxicity and genotoxicity of antimalarial alkaloid rich extracts derived from Mitragyna inermis O. Kuntze and Nauclealatifolia,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 608–611, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  20. F. Traore-Keita, M. Gasquet, G. C. Di et al., “Antimalarial activity of four plants used in traditional medicine in Mali,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 45–47, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  21. B. S. Kumulungui, A. S. Ondo-Azi, N. A. Mintsa, F. Fumoux, and A. Traore, “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven plants commonly used against malaria in Burkina Faso,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 2284–2288, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. R. J. Rodgers, C. Lee, and J. K. Shepherd, “Effects of diazepam on behavioural and antinociceptive responses to the elevated plus-maze in male mice depend upon treatment regimen and prior maze experience,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 102–110, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. H. Silva and R. Frussa-Filho, “The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: a new model to study memory-anxiety interactions. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and caffeine,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 117–125, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. P. Kulkarni, M. G. Mahesh, D. C. Niranjan, and S. S. Poournima, “Memory enhancing activity of Cissampelos parierain mice,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 206–211, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. I. Carrié, M. Debray, J. M. Bourre, and H. Francès, “Age-induced cognitive alterations in OF1 mice,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 651–656, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. V. O. Kishor, G. B. Om, V. S. Rajkumar, and D. U. Chandrakant, “Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitex negundo Linn. leaves on learning and memory in normal and cognitive deficit mice,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. S104–S111, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Ennaceur, S. Michalikova, and P. L. Chazot, “Do rats really express neophobia towards novel objects? Experimental evidence from exposure to novelty and to an object recognition task in an open space and an enclosed space,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 417–434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Ennaceur, “Effects of lesions of the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum, globus pallidus and medial septum on rat’s performance in object-recognition and radial-maze tasks: physostigmine and amphetamine treatments,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 251–263, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. N. M. De Lima, C. L. Daniela, B. Elke, R. Roesler, and S. Nadja, “Pre- or post-training administration of NMDA receptor blocker MK-801 impairs object recognition memory in rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 139–143, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. M. Gomes, S. P. Renan, V. S. Samira et al., “Chronic methylphenidate-effects over circadian cycle of young and adult rats submitted to open-field and object recognition tests,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 259–266s, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  31. E. J. Jeong, J. M. Choong, Y. L. Ki, H. K. Seung, H. S. Sang, and C. K. Young, “KD-501, a standardized extract of Scrophularia buergeriana has both cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities in mice given scopolamine,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 98–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Muto, H. Lee, U. Akemi, I. Fumiyuki, O. Makoto, and M. Toshio, “Morinda citrifolia fruit reduces stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by vasculature improvement in mice,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. C. Winterbourn, R. E. Hawkins, M. Brain, and R. W. Carrel, “The estimation of red cell superoxide dismutase activity,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 337–341, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. K. Sinha, “Colorimetric assay of catalase,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 389–394, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Yagi, “A simple fluorometric assay for lipoperoxide in blood plasma,” Biochemia Medica, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 212–216, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. B. Harbone, Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, Champignon and Hall, London, 1st edition, 1976.
  37. T. A. Yahaya, O. A. Salawu, and U. E. Uboho, “Neuro-protective effect of carvedilol, an adrenergic antagonist against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 3, Supplement 1, no. 8, pp. S32–S36, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. D. P. Ike, Y. Y. Seo, J. K. Hee et al., “Effects of ginseol k-g3, an Rg3-enriched fraction, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and learning deficit in mice,” Journal of Ginseng Research, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. Abbasi, M. Nassiri-Asl, M. Sheikhi, and M. Shafiee, “Effects of vitexin on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats,” Chinese Journal of Physiology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 184–189, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. W. Beatty, N. Butters, and D. S. Janowsky, “Patterns of memory failure after scopolamine treatment: implications for cholinergic hypotheses of dementia,” Behavioral and Neural Biology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 196–211, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. D. Collerton, “Cholinergic function and intellectual decline in Alzheimer’s disease,” Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. D. Kopelman and T. H. Corn, “Cholinergic ‘blockade’ as a model for cholinergic depletion. A comparison of the memory deficits with those of Alzheimer-type dementia and the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome,” Brain, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 1079–1110, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. S. Kulkarni, S. B. Kasture, and S. A. Mengi, “Efficacy study of Prunusamygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 168–173, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. V. Da Silva Costa-Aze, F. Dauphin, and M. Boulouard, “Serotonin 5-HT6 receptor blockade reverses the age-related deficits of recognition memory and working memory in mice,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 134–140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. O. Mutlu, G. Ulak, I. K. Celikyurt, F. Y. Akar, F. Erden, and P. Tanyeri, “Effects of olanzapine, sertindole and clozapine on MK-801 induced visual memory deficits in mice,” Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 557–565, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  46. N. De Bruin and B. Pouzet, “Beneficial effects of galantamine on performance in the object recognition task in Swiss mice: deficits induced by scopolamine and by prolonging the retention interval,” Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 253–260, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  47. L. R. Squire, J. T. Wixted, and R. E. Clark, “Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: a new perspective,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 872–883, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Malkova, A. P. Kozikowski, and K. Gale, “The effects of huperzine A and IDRA 21 on visual recognition memory in young macaques,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 60, no. 7–8, pp. 1262–1268, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. H. Ren-wen, Z. Rui-san, C. Min et al., “Reversal of scopolamine-induced spatial and recognition memory deficits in mice by novel multifunctional dimers bis-cognitins,” Brain Research, vol. 1470, pp. 59–68, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Lee, B. Sur, J. Shim, H. Dae-Hyun, and H. Lee, “Acupuncture stimulation improves scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment via activation of cholinergic system and regulation of BDNF and CREB expressions in rats,” Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, pp. 338–351, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Z. Rabiei, S. Mokhtari, S. Asgharzade, M. Gholami, S. Rahnama, and M. Rafieian-kopaei, “Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 845–851, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. D’Hooge and P. P. De Deyn, “Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 60–90, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I. K. Celikyurt, T. Utkan, C. Ozer, N. Gacar, and F. Aricioglu, “Effects of YC-1 on learning and memory functions of aged rats,” Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, vol. 20, pp. 130–137, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. Rasoolijazi, M. Mehdizadeh, M. Soleimani, F. Nikbakhte, M. E. Farsani, and S. Ababzadeh, “The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats,” Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, vol. 29, pp. 187–197, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  55. O. Otitoju and I. N. E. Onwurah, “Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and serum calcium level in rats exposed to a locally produced insecticide ‘rambo insect powder’,” Animal Research International, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 261–266, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  56. M. Abu-Hilal, M. J. W. McPhail, L. Marchand, and C. D. Johnson, “Malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase as potential markers of severity in acute pancreatitis,” JOP. Journal of the Pancreas, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 185–192, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  57. M. Crnogaj, R. Petlevski, V. Mrljak et al., “Malondialdehyde levels in serum of dogs infected with Babesia canis,” Veterinarni Medicina., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 163–171, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  58. K. Seung-Hwan, M. Shi-Xun, J. Hyun-Joong, L. Seok-Yong, and J. Choon-Gon, “Inhibitory effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark on scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in mice,” Biomolecules & Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 462–469, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  59. J. Ben-Barak and Y. Dudai, “Scopolamine induces an increase in muscarinic receptor level in rat hippocampus,” Brain Research, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 309–313, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. Sakurai, T. Kato, K. Mori, E. Takano, S. Watabe, and T. Nabeshima, “Nefiracetam elevates extracellular acetylcholine level in the frontal cortex of rats with cerebral cholinergic dysfunctions: an in vivo microdialysis study,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 246, no. 2, pp. 69–72, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. Y. Fan, J. Hu, J. Li et al., “Effect of acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats and its related mechanisms,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 374, no. 3, pp. 222–226, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. J. Jeong, K. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, S. H. Sung, and Y. C. Kim, “Cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant activities of iridoid glycosides from Scrophularia buergeriana in scopolamine-treated mice,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 588, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. V. S. Nade, N. V. Shendye, and A. Kawalel, “Ameliorative effect of resveratrol on Hpa axis modulated chronic restraint stress in rats,” International Journal of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 132–139, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  64. J. K. Saliu and K. A. Bawa-Allah, “Toxicological effects of lead and zinc on the antioxidant enzyme activities of post juvenile Clariasgarie pinus,” Resources and Environment, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. M. M. Al-Enazi, “Combined therapy of rutin and silymarin has more protective effects on streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in rats,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 4, no. 01, pp. 021–028, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  66. C. I. Sajeeth, P. K. Manna, and R. Manavalan, “Antioxidant activity of polyherbal formulation on streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental animals,” Der Pharmacia Sinica, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 220–226, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  67. B. Manju and C. Meena, “Investigating the role of Eclipta alba on brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetylcholinesterase activity of rats,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 390–394, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  68. F. Dajas, F. Rivera-Megret, F. Blasina et al., “Neuroprotection by flavonoids,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1613–1620, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. M. E.-S. El-Sayed, O. M. Abo-Salem, M. F. Abd-Ellah, and G. M. Abd-Alla, “Hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, prevents acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress in rat brain,” Journal of the Egyptian Society of Toxicology, vol. 37, pp. 87–93, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  70. C. Brunetti, M. D. Ferdinando, A. Fini, S. Pollastri, and M. Tattini, “Flavonoids as antioxidants and developmental regulators: relative significance in plants and humans,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 3540–3555, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. C. Chae, L. Jai-Heon, and S. U. Park, “Recent studies on flavonoids and their antioxidant activities,” EXCLI Journal, vol. 12, pp. 225–230, 2013. View at Google Scholar