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Behavioural Neurology
Volume 2017, Article ID 6914216, 6 pages
Research Article

An Exploratory Study of Intensive Neurofeedback Training for Schizophrenia

1Department of Psychology, College of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau
3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Macau, Macau
4State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed Signal VLSI, University of Macau, Macau
5LaSEEB-System and Robotics Institute, Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to Feng Wan; om.camu@nawf

Received 19 February 2017; Revised 23 April 2017; Accepted 28 May 2017; Published 21 June 2017

Academic Editor: Ting Zhao

Copyright © 2017 Wenya Nan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder with ongoing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deteriorated functions. Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the effect of short but intensive neurofeedback training for schizophrenic patients with difficulty for long-time training. A middle-aged woman with chronic schizophrenia completed the intensive training of alpha/beta2 (20–30 Hz) in four consecutive days with a total training duration of 13.5 hours. The results showed that her alpha/beta2 increased over sessions, and her behavior performance including short-term memory, mood, and speech pattern was improved at the end of neurofeedback training. Importantly, a 22-month follow-up found a dramatic improvement in both positive and negative symptoms. These positive outcomes suggest that such intensive neurofeedback training may provide new insight into the treatment of schizophrenia and thus deserves further study to fully examine its scope.