Table 2: Extracted data from studies included in the scoping review on longitudinal participation outcomes after stroke.

AuthorYearCountrySettingStudy designMeasureSample size1st measure2nd measure3rd measure4th measureAssessorsAge (yr) mean (SD), median (IQR)Define participation

Altman et al. [46]2013USACommunityRetrospective cohort of completers and noncompletersMPAI-4Completers , noncompleters BaselineDischargePostdischarge (3 months)Postdischarge (12 months)Not describedCompleters 51.10 (11.46), noncompleters 52.96 (52.96)Operational
Awad et al. [47]2014USAResearch laboratoryCase series pretest, posttestSIS-PBaselinePostbaseline (12 weeks)PT61 (8.31)Self-perceived participation
Beaudoin et al. [48]2013CanadaCommunityProspective cohort studyLIFE-HBaselinePostbaseline (6 months)Postbaseline (9 months)Not described76.9 (8.1)DCP
Bertilsson et al. [49]2016SwedenInpatient and communityMulticentre cluster RCTSIS-P, OGQClient-centred , usual BaselinePostbaseline (3 months)12 monthsOTClient-centred 74.1 (9.5), usual 71.3 (10.1)ICF, meaningful activities/occupation
Brown et al. [50]2014CanadaCommunityProspective cohort study, with intervention and interrupted time seriesPASIPDBaselinePostbaseline (2 months)Postbaseline (4 months)PTIntervention 65 (13), control 66 (13)Operational
Butler et al. [51]2006USACommunityCase study: pre-post testSIS-PBaselinePostbaseline (4 weeks)Postintervention (8 weeks)Postintervention (3 months)OT44ICF
Chou et al. [52]2015TaiwanInpatient and communityProspective cohort studySIS-PBaseline BaselinePostbaseline (2 weeks)OT59.8 (13.0)Operational
Combs-Miller et al. [53]2014USAResearch laboratory and communityRCTIMPACT-PBaselinePostinterventionPostbaseline (3 months)PTBody weight-supported 56.20 (7.61), overground walking 65.50 (6.17)ICF
Demetrios et al. [54]2014AustraliaCommunityNonrandomized controlled studyGASHigh-intensity program , usual care BaselinePostintervention (6 weeks)Postintervention (12 weeks)Postintervention (24 weeks)Not describedHigh-intensity 60.6 (48.6–65.9), usual care 61.4 (47.8–68.6)ICF
Desrosiers et al. [55]2006CanadaCommunityProspective cohort studyLIFE-HT1 , T2 Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (2–4 years)OTT1 68.1 (14.1), T2 67.6 (13.7)DCP
Desrosiers et al. [56]2007CanadaCommunityRCTMinutesExperimental , control BaselinePostinterventionOTExperimental 70.0 (10.2), control 70.0 (12.0)DCP
Desrosiers et al. [57]2006CanadaCommunityProspective cohort studyLIFE-HT1 , T2 Postdischarge (6 months)Poststroke (2–4 years)OTT1 68.1 (14.1), T2 67.6 (13.7)DCP
Egan et al. [58]2014CanadaCommunityProspective cohort studyRNLPoststroke (6 months)Poststroke (9 months)Poststroke (12 months)Poststroke (18 months)Not described64.8 (13.3)ICF
Egan et al. [59]2015CanadaCommunityProspective cohort studyRNLPoststroke (6 months)Poststroke (9 months)Poststroke (12 months)Poststroke (18 months)Not described64.8 (13.3)ICF
Evan et al. [60]2012USACommunityCase study pre-post testGPSBaselinePostbaseline (4 weeks)Postbaseline (8 weeks)Postdischarge (6 and 12 months)PT56ICF
Flansbjer et al. [61]2012SwedenCommunityProspective cohort study follow-up from RCTSIS-PBaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (5 months)Postintervention (4 years)PT4 years 66 (4)ICF
Flansbjer et al. [62]2008SwedenCommunityRCTSIS-PBaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (5 months)PTIntervention 61 (5), control 60 (5)ICF
Guidetti et al. [63]2015Stockholm, Uppsala, and Gävleborg County, SwedenCommunityRCTSIS-PPoststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (12 months)OTCADL 74 (10), UADL 71 (11)Operational
Guidetti et al. [64]2014Stockholm, SwedenCommunityComparative study no controlsSIS-PPoststroke (3 months)Poststroke (12 months)OT, PT74 (14)Operational
Hamzat and Peters [65]2009NigeriaCommunityLongitudinal descriptive studyLHSPoststroke (1 month)Poststroke (2 months)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (4 months)PTNot reportedICF
Horgan et al. [66]2009IrelandCommunityComparative study no controlsFAIPoststroke (2 weeks)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (12 months)PT69.7 (11.3)Operational
Ilse et al. [67]2008BelgiumCommunityComparative study no controlsNEADL, mRSPoststroke (2 months)Poststroke (4 months)Poststroke (6 months)PT67.3 (11.2)Operational
Baert et al. [68]2012BelgiumInpatientCase series pretest, posttestSIS-P, NEADLBaselinePoststroke (2 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (12 months)PT57.2 (11.4)ICF
Jalayondeja et al. [69]2011ThailandCommunityProspective cohort studySIS-PPoststroke (1 month)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Researcher/research assistant61.9 (11.02)Operational
Jalayondeja et al. [70]2014ThailandCommunityProspective cohort studySIS-PPoststroke (1 month)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Researcher/research assistantFallers 65.4 (10.2), nonfallers 60.7 (11.2)Community participation
Kluding et al. [71]2013USACommunityRCTSIS-PBaselinePostintervention (6 weeks)Postintervention (12 weeks)Postintervention (30 weeks)PTInterventions 60.7 (12.2), control 61.6 (11.0)Operational
Kootker et al. [72]2017NetherlandsCommunityRCTUSER-PBaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (4 months)Postintervention (8 months)Health psychologistCBT 61 (45–79), CCT 61 (25–76)Operational
Kutner et al. [73]2010USAInpatient and communityRCTSIS-PRTP , combined therapy group BaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (2 months)OT, PTRTP 51.0 (11.3), combined therapy group 61.9 (13.4)Operational
Kwok et al. [74]2011Hong KongInpatientObservational cohort studyLHSBaseline , 3 months , 12 months Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (12 months)Not described72 (65–77)ICF
Laufer et al. [75]2009IsraelResearch laboratory and communityTime series no controlSIS-PBaselinePostintervention (8 weeks)Postintervention (12 months)PTStudy group 55.0 (14.6)Meaningful activities/occupation
Lennon et al. [76]2006IrelandInpatient and communityPre-post testLHSPoststroke (6 weeks)Discharge from physiotherapy64.3 (9.6)Operational
Levin et al. [77]2012Canada + IsraelResearch laboratory and communityCase series pre-post testMALVR , conventional BaselinePostbaseline (1 week)PostinterventionPostintervention (1 month)OTVR 58.1 (14.6), conventional 59.8 (15.1)ICF
Lund et al. [78]2012NorwayCommunityRCTSF-36Intervention , control Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (9 months)Researcher/research assistantIntervention 75 (7.2), control 79 (6.5)Operational
Mayer and Reid [79]2004CanadaCommunityProspective longitudinal cohort studyIPAPoststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)OT67.4 (13.4)ICF
Mayo et al. [80]2009Canada and EnglandInpatient and communityLongitudinal cohort studySIS-PPoststroke (1 month)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (12 months)Not described66.5 (14.6)Operational
Mayo et al. [81]2011CanadaCommunityReanalysis of RCTSF-36Nurse case-manager group , usual care group PostinterventionPostintervention (6 months)Not describedNurse case-manager 70 (14), usual care 72 (13)Role participation
Mayo et al. [82]2013CanadaCommunityRCTSIS-P, RAND-36Cycle group , exercise group BaselinePostbaseline (12 months)PTCycle 67.7 (14.4) ,exercise 67.8 (12.3)ICF, role participation
Mercer et al. [83]2009USAInpatient and research laboratoryProspective cohort studySIS-PPoststroke (1 month)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Not described58.7 (17.3)ICF
Nijenhuis et al. [84]2015NetherlandsCommunityComparison within subjects, longitudinalSIS-PBaselinePostintervention (6 weeks)Biomechanical engineering59 (13)Operational
Page et al. [85]2015USAResearch laboratory and communityComparison within subjects longitudinal no controlSIS-PBaselinePostinterventionOT43.7 (6.43)Meaningful activities/occupation
Pang et al. [86]2005CanadaCommunityRCTPASIPDBaselinePostinterventionOT, PTIntervention group 65.8 (9.1), control 64.7 (8.4)Operational
Parker et al. [87]2001UKCommunityRCTNLQPostintervention (6 months)Postintervention (12 months)OTLeisure 72 (65–79), ADL 71 (66–78), control 72 (65–78)Operational
Penney et al. [88]2007CanadaNot statedSingle case studyIPA, 6-minute walk testPoststroke (3 months)Poststroke (12 months)PT62ICF
Pundik et al. [89]2012USANot statedPre-post test with interrupted time series no controlSIS-PBaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (3 months)Not described60 (16.8)ICF
Raghavan et al. [90]2016USACommunityMixed-method pre-post design with 1 year follow-upSIS-PBaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (12 months)OT52 (14)Operational
Rochette et al. [91]2013CanadaInpatient and communityRCTLIFE-HBaselinePostbaseline (6 months)Postintervention (12 months)OT, PTYOU CALL 63.2 (12.4), WE CALL 61.7 (12.7)DCP
Sabariego et al. [92]2013GermanyInpatient and communityRCTSIS-PBaselinePostintervention (1 week)Postintervention (6 months)Not describedExperimental 55.3 (12.6), control 59.3 (12.7)ICF
Sandberg et al. [93]2016SwedenCommunityRCTSIS-PBaselinePostintervention (3 months)Not describedIntervention 71.3 (7.0), control 70.4 (8.1)Social participation
Segura et al. [94]2006BrazilResearch laboratory and communityProspective, comparative, no controlSIS-PBaselinePostintervention (3 months)PT52.9Operational
Singam et al. [95]2015SwedenInpatientProspective, longitudinal studyFAIPoststroke (5 days)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (12 months)OT, PT69.4 (13.8)ICF
Stuart et al. [96]2009ItalyNot statedNonrandomized control trialSIS-PIntervention , control BaselinePostintervention (6 months)Not describedIntervention 66.8 (1.4), control 70.0 (1.7)Operational
Studenski et al. [97]2005USACommunityRCTSIS-PIntervention , usual care BaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (6 months)Blinded assessorIntervention 68.5 (9.0), usual care 70.4 (11.3)Operational
Teoh et al. [98]2009AustraliaCommunityLongitudinal cohort studySIS-PBaselinePostbaseline (10 weeks)Postbaseline (6 months)Not described67.5 (14.3)Social participation
Tielemans et al. [99]2015NetherlandsCommunityRCTUSER-PBaselinePostinterventionPostintervention (3 months)Postintervention (9 months)Researcher/research assistantSelf-management 55.2 (8.9), education 58.8 (8.7)Operational
van Mierlo et al. [100]2016NetherlandsCommunityLongitudinal cohort studyUSER-PPoststroke (2 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (12 months)Poststroke (24 months)Researcher/research assistant66.8 (12.3)Operational
Vincent-Onabajo et al. [101]2014NigeriaResearch laboratory and communityCase seriesLHSPoststroke (1 month)Poststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (9 months and 12 months)Not describedMale 60.7 (12.4), female 58.1 (12.6)ICF
Viscogliosi et al. [102]2011CanadaInpatient and communityComparative study no controlsLIFE-HPoststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (9 months)OT76.9 (7.0)DCP
Worrall et al. [103]2017AustraliaInpatient and communityProspective longitudinal cohort studyALAPoststroke (3 months)Poststroke (6 months)Poststroke (9 months)Poststroke (12 months)Not described66.1 (13.6)ICF
Yang and Kong [104]2013SingaporeInpatientProspective observational cohort studySF-36BaselinePredischargeOT, PT58.2 (10.5)Operational

Note: ADL: activity of daily living; ALA: assessment for living with aphasia; DCP: disability creation process; FAI: Frenchay activity index; GAS: goal attainment scale; GPS: global positioning system; ICF: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; IMPACT-P: participation subsection of the ICF measure of participation and activities; IPA: impact on participation and autonomy; LHS: London handicap scale; LIFE-H: assessment of life habits; MAL: motor activity log; MPAI-4: Mayo-Portland adaptability inventory; mRS: modified ranking scale; NEADL: Nottingham extended activities of daily living; NLQ: Nottingham leisure questionnaire; OGQ: occupational gaps questionnaire; PASIPD: physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities; RAND-36: physical function index of the medical outcomes study RND-36 item health survey; RCT: randomized control trial; RNL: reintegration of normal living; RTP: repetitive task practice; SF-36: short form 36; SIS-P: stroke impact scale participation domain; USER-P: Utrecht scale for evaluation of rehabilitation-participation; VR: virtual reality. Cohort studies that statistically tested for changes in participation.