Table 3: The classification of control strategy.

TermDescriptionStandard of classification

Maciejasz et al. [62]“High-level” control strategy
(i) Assistive control
(ii) Challenge-based control
(iii) Haptic stimulation
(iv) Couching control
The function of control systems
“Low-level” control strategy
(i) Admittance control
(ii) Impedance control

Gopura et al. [63]Based on input information
(i) Human biological signal based control methods
(ii) Nonbiological signal-based control methods
(iii) Platform-independent control methods
The position of signals
Based on output information
(i) Different controller architecture

Anam et al. [64]Model system
(i) Dynamic
(ii) Muscle
Control system architectures
Physical parameters
(i) Position
(ii) Torque/force
(iii) Force interaction
The hierarchy
(i) Task level
(ii) High level
(iii) Low level
(i) Virtual reality
(ii) Teleoperation
(iii) Gait

Marchal-Crespo et al. [65]Assistive controllers
(i) Impedance-based assistance
(ii) Counterbalancing assistance
(iii) EMG-based assistance
(iv) Performance-based adaption of task parameter
Type of human-machine interaction
Challenge-based robotic therapy control algorithms
(i) Resistive strategies
(ii) Constraint-induced strategies
(iii) Error-amplification strategies
Haptic simulation strategies
(i) Virtual reality
Noncontacting coaches
(i) Noncontacting coaches

Sicur et al. [66]Passive
Active unassisted
Active assisted
Training modes

Proietti et al. [67]Assistive mode
Passive control
Triggered passive control
Partially assistive control
Corrective mode
Coordination control
Resistive mode
Training modes