Table 1
(a) Characteristics of single-group studies: research design and participants

1st author (date)Research designAge participant (y/o)% males% ADHD subtypes% medication status% comorbid disorders

Hesslinger (2002) [14]Pre-post19-44, , 1562.2, , 37.5 (MPH), 12.5 (other)37.5 (MDD/Sx), 25 (social phobia), 25 (insomnia)
Morgensterns (2016) [42]Baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3)19–63, , 9831.6, 74.7 (atomoxetine+central stimulants), 88.2 (psychoactive drugs)71.1 (at least one comorbid DSM-IV diagnosis)
Zylowska (2008) [11]Pre (T1) to post (T2), s = 10.92438, , 6383 (mood), 33 (AD), 33 (ODD), 92 (any)

(1) Statistics: n.r. = nonreported; y/o = years old;  = mean;  = standard deviation. (2) ADHD subtypes: ADHD = attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders; I = inattentive; H = hyperactive; C = combined. (3) Comorbid disorders: AD/Sx = anxiety disorder or symptoms; ODD = oppositional defiant disorder; MDD/Sx = major depressive disorder or symptoms. (4) MPH = methylphenidate.
(b) Characteristics of single-group studies: intervention

1st author (date)InterventionIntervention lengthTherapistInformants

Hesslinger (2002) [14]ST-based DBT+mindfulness components2 h/week, 13  hPsychotherapists trained in DBTSelf, objective
Morgensterns (2016) [42]DBT (elements of acceptance, mindfulness, functional behavioral analysis, psychoeducation)2 h/week, 14  hTwo clinical psychologists who are trained in CBT+DBT experienced from previous study phases (T.H.) or had clinical supervision from the experienced group leaderSelf
Zylowska (2008) [11]MAP+psychoeducation2.5 h/week, 8  h+daily at-home practiceExperienced mindfulness instructor (D.W.)+ADHD researchers (L.Z. & S.S.)Self, objective

Intervention: CBT = cognitive behavioral therapy; DBT = dialectical behavior therapy; MAP = mindful awareness program; ST = skills training.
(c) Characteristics of single-group studies: measures of outcome

1st author (date)ADHD symptomsCognitive/executive functionEmotional disturbanceQuality of lifeAcademic performanceMindfulness

Hesslinger (2002) [14]ADHD-CL, SCL-16Fluency, Stroop, DSS, KLT, d2-Test, WMS-RBDIn.r.n.r.n.r.
Morgensterns (2016) [42]CADHDSC_SRF: ADHD symptoms (functional impairment, aggression irritability)n.r.BDI, BAI, PSSAAQ-9, AAQoL, KSQn.r.MAAS
Zylowska (2008) [11]ADHD Rating Scale IV (adults), DSM-IVANT, TMT, DST, VOCBAI, BDIn.r.n.r.n.r.

(1) ADHD symptoms: ADHD-CL = Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Checklist; CADHDSC_SRF = Current ADHD Symptom Scale-Self-Report Form; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; SCL-16 = Symptom Check List. (2) Cognitive/executive function: ANT = Attention Network Task; d2-Test = selective attention; DSS = Digit Symbol Subtest; DST = Digit Span Test (WAIS-R); KLT = Konzentrations-Leistungs-Test; TMT = Trail Making Test; VOC=vocabulary subtest (WAIS-R); WMS-R = Wechsler Memory Scale-R (mental control, digit span, visual memory span). (3) Emotional disturbance: BAI = Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; PSS = Perceived Stress Scale. (4) Quality of life: AAQ-9 = Adult Quality of Life Questionnaire; AAQoL = Adult ADHD Quality of Life Questionnaire; KSQ = Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. (5) Mindfulness: MAAS = Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.