Diverse Effect of Vitamin C and N-Acetylcysteine on Aluminum-Induced EryptosisRead the full article
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The Role of Glutamine in the Prevention of Ultraviolet-C-Induced Platelet Activation
Background and Objectives. The primary function of platelets is to prevent bleeding. The use of UV-C light in the treatment of platelets has become a valuable method for preserving the efficacy of platelet concentrates in blood banks. However, its deleterious effect remains, such as the activation of platelets, thus causing the platelets to lose their physiological function. In this study, we intended to demonstrate the impact of UV-C on platelets and how the use of glutamine could mitigate the loss of physiological function of the platelets caused by UV-C. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using mouse platelets. We assessed calcium signaling using Fura-2 AM incubation and dense granule secretion of the platelets using luminescence assay by measuring ATP. At the molecular level, the activation of integrin using PAC-1 antibody was analyzed. Phosphorylation of immune-precipitated cPLA2 was assessed using a specific antibody. All the experiments were carried out with or without glutamine in the presence of UV-C. Positive and negative controls were used in all experiments to validate the findings. Results. We have demonstrated that physiological and biochemical damage arises as a result of the exposure of platelet concentrate to UV-C and that the use of glutamine could alleviate this damage. Various experiments, thrombus formation, integrin activation, and phosphorylation of cPLA2 were preserved using 50 mM of glutamine in the presence of UV-C, which reduces 50% of platelet viability. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that the storage of platelet concentrates under the UV-C activates their physiological process and renders them to the thrombus formation, hence decreasing their viability. The presence of a moderate amount of glutamine can alleviate the toxic effect of UV-C, and platelet concentrates could be kept viable for a long time.
Interaction of Agaric Acid with the Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Induces Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress
Mitochondrial permeability transition is characterized by the opening of a transmembranal pore that switches membrane permeability from specific to nonspecific. This structure allows the free traffic of ions, metabolites, and water across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The opening of the permeability transition pore is triggered by oxidative stress along with calcium overload. In this work, we explored if oxidative stress is a consequence, rather than an effector of the pore opening, by evaluating the interaction of agaric acid with the adenine nucleotide translocase, a structural component of the permeability transition pore. We found that agaric acid induces transition pore opening, increases the generation of oxygen-derived reactive species, augments the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane, and promotes the detachment of cytochrome c from the inner membrane. The effect of agaric acid was inhibited by the antioxidant tamoxifen in association with decreased binding of the thiol reagent eosin-3 maleimide to the adenine nucleotide translocase. We conclude that agaric acid promotes the opening of the pore, increasing ROS production that exerts oxidative modification of critical thiols in the adenine nucleotide translocase.
Characterization of the Volatile Components of Essential Oils of Selected Plants in Kenya
Essential oils are secondary metabolites that plants produce for protection from pests and predators, attraction of pollinators, and seed dispersal. The oils are made up of a mixture of compounds that give a characteristic flavour and odour. Currently, essential oils are receiving great attention in research for their phytochemical and antimicrobial activities. However, there is scanty information on the chemical composition of many plants. This study provides a detailed analysis of the chemical composition of essential oils of ginger, garlic, tick berry, and Mexican marigold in Kenya. The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The study identified a total of 52 different chemical classes from the essential oils of the four different plants that were analysed. Their percentage composition was also found to vary between the test plants. The essential oils of Mexican marigold constituted the highest composition of the identified chemical classes at 71.2%, followed by ginger at 55.8%, while both tick berry and garlic oils constituted 53.8% of the total classes identified. Terpenes constituted the highest composition in the essential oils of all the four test plants. Other major chemical classes included esters, ketones, organosulfurs, alkanes, cycloalkanes, steroids, aromatic hydrocarbons, and alkanols. Some of these chemical compounds have been shown to have a huge utility potential in biopesticides, pharmaceutical, and food industries, and hence, their industrial extraction and purification from the essential oils of these plants are recommended.
Biochemical Constituents of Phaleria macrocarpa (Leaf) Methanolic Extract Inhibit ROS Production in SH-SY5Y Cells Model
Background. Reactive oxygen species generation in mammalian cells profoundly affects several critical cellular functions, and the lack of efficient cellular detoxification mechanisms which remove these radicals may lead to several human diseases. Several studies show that ROS is incriminated as destructive agents in the context of the nervous system especially with advance in age leading to neurodegeneration. Current treatments of this disease are not effective and result in several side effects. Thus, the search for alternative medicines is in high demand. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the reactive oxygen inhibitory effect of Phaleria macrocarpa 80% (leaf) extract. Methods. The leaf was extracted with 80% methanol. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and ROS inhibitory activities were evaluated using dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay in the SH-SY5Y cells model. Results. The result revealed ROS inhibitory activities of the crude extract with highly significant differences at between the group that were treated with crude extract only, the group treated with crude extract and exposed to H2O2, and the group exposed to H2O2 only as well as the group that were maintained in complete media. Bioactive compounds show the presence of vitexin and isovitexin following the HPLC method. Conclusion. High antioxidant activities and low toxicity effect of this crude revealed its high benefit to be used as natural medicine/supplements.
Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antidiabetic Effects of Leaf Extracts from Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae)
Fruits and leaves of Persia americana are used in traditional medical practices. This study was carried out to determine the antibacterial, antifungal, and antidiabetic effects of the leaf extracts from P. americana. The antibacterial activities of the leaf extracts were evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis while antifungal activities were determined against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The antidiabetic potential of the extracts was determined against mammalian α-glucosidase in vitro. The broth microdilution method was used to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal susceptibility of the microbial strains towards the leaf extracts. S. epidermidis was the most susceptible microbe out of the tested microorganisms. The acetone extract was the most potent extract against S. epidermidis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 μg/mL. At 100 μg/mL, the ethanol:water extract 18% of K. pneumoniae cells remained viable. Cell viability after exposure to the dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol extracts was 28% against C. albicans and 8% against C. tropicalis, respectively. The DCM:methanol and acetone extracts caused membrane damage in S. epidermidis exhibited by protein leakage. Only the acetone extract effected nucleic acid leakage. Screening of extracts’ potential to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase was carried out spectrophotometrically following the production of p-nitrophenol from p-nitrophenol-glucopyranoside (substrate) at a wavelength of 405 nm. Out of all the tested extracts, the methanolic extract showed the best inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase enzyme in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. and values were found to be 1.4 mg/mL and 2.4 U/min, respectively, after incubation for 1 hour. It was concluded that the leaf extracts of P. americana contain phytochemicals with antibacterial, antifungal, and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Further studies are required for the identification of the active compounds in the leaf extracts responsible for these observed effects.
In Vitro Determination of Antimicrobial and Hypoglycemic Activities of Mikania cordata (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts
Infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus are counted responsible for a substantial amount of mortality among the human population. The current study was performed to detect the antimicrobial activities and hypoglycemic potential of Mikania cordata (Asteraceae) leaves extracted into aqueous media and several organic solvents (ethyl acetate and methanol). The ethyl acetate extract of Mikania cordata (MEA) leaves was observed to possess significantly () greater antimicrobial capabilities (susceptible against Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) when compared with that of the methanol (MME) and aqueous extracts (MDW) which were assessed based on Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration of MEA (against B. cereus, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and MME (against B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231) lies in a similar range of 1.13 > MIC>0.56 mg/ml. In the present study, a single compound (from MEA) of Rf value 0.64 was isolated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) that was responsible for the zone of inhibition against B. cereus (20.3 ± 0.3 mm). The results of this study also depicted the antihyperglycemic properties of M. cordata leaves which followed the same trend as the commercial drug Metformin in a glucose concentration-independent manner when tested in a glucose uptake assay by yeast cells. Therefore, it is evident that Mikania cordata is a reservoir of useful bioactive compounds which with further research will be paving the path for drug commercialization. This is the first record of TLC-based isolation of antimicrobial compounds of M. cordata and analysis of the hypoglycemic properties of M. cordata leaves.