Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2011, Article ID 159439, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/159439
Research Article

Evaluation of the Possible Mechanisms of Antihypertensive Activity of Loranthus micranthus: An African Mistletoe

1Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, PMB 2013, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725-1320, USA
3Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria
4Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15269, USA

Received 3 January 2011; Revised 26 April 2011; Accepted 16 June 2011

Academic Editor: Andrei Surguchov

Copyright © 2011 Bamidele A. Iwalokun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, “Classification of hypertension,” Report of WHO Scientific Group, Technical Report Series, 657, pp. 87–95, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. Fry, “Deaths and complications from hypertension,” Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, vol. 25, no. 156, pp. 489–494, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. A. Meredith, “Candesartan cilexetil—a review of effects on cardiovascular complications in hypertension and chronic heart failure,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1693–1705, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. J. A. O. Ojewole and O. O. Odebiyi, “Neuromuscular and cardiovascular actions of tetramethylpyrazine from the stem of Jatropha podagrica,” Planta Medica, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 332–338, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C.-Y. Kwan, “Plant-derived drugs acting on cellular Ca2+ mobilization in vascular smooth muscle: tetramethylpyrazine and tetrandrine,” Stem Cells, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Q. Nie, Z. C. Xie, and K. C. Lin, “Effects of tetrapyrazine on membrane fluidity and electrophoretic mobility of platelets and the relation to its antiaggregation effect,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 689–692, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. F. King, M. L. Garcia, D. Himmel et al., “Interaction of tetrandrine with slowly inactivating calcium channels. Characterization of calcium channel modulation by an alkaloid of Chinese medicinal herb origin,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 263, no. 5, pp. 2238–2244, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. L. Wang and Y. K. Ba, “Pharmacological and electrophysiological actions of ligustrazine on cardiovascular tissues-a new “Ca-channel blocker”?” The Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 291–294, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  9. P. D. O'Kane, L. R. Queen, Y. Ji et al., “Aspirin modifies nitric oxide synthase activity in platelets: effects of acute versus chronic aspirin treatment,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 152–159, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C.-C. Wu and M.-H. Yen, “Higher level of plasma nitric oxide in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” The American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 476–482, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. G. Umans and R. Levi, “Nitric oxide in the regulation of blood flow and arterial pressure,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 57, pp. 771–790, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Ojewole, D. R. Kamadyaapa, M. M. Gondwe, K. Moodley, and C. T. Musabayane, “Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals,” Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 69–76, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. O. C. Amira and N. U. Okubadejo, “Frequency of complementary and alternative medicine utilization in hypertensive patients attending an urban tertiary care centre in Nigeria,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, article 30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. P. O. Osadebe and S. E. Ukweze, “A comparative study of the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of the Eastern Nigerian species of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) sourced from different host areas trees,” Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 18–23, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  15. P. O. Osadebe and E. O. Omeje, “Comparative acute toxicities and immunomodulatory potentials of five Eastern Nigeria mistletoes,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 287–293, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. P. O. Osadebe, G. B. Okide, and I. C. Akabogu, “Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 133–138, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. D. K. Obatomi, V. O. Aina, and V. J. Temple, “Effects of African mistletoe extract on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 124–127, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Z. Ameer, I. M. Salman, M. J. Siddiqui et al., “Characterization of the possible mechanisms underlying the hypotensive and spasmogenic effects of Loranthus ferrugineus methanolic extract,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 991–1008, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Z. J. Wang, Z. Q. Yang, T. N. Huang, L. Wen, and Y. W. Liu, “Experimental research on inhibitory effect of alcohol extracts from Loranthus yadoriki Sieb. on coxsackie B3 virus,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 685–687, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. U. Choi, and S. Y. Ryu, “Isolation of flavonol rhamnosides from Loranthus tanakae and cytotoxic effect of them on human tumor cell lines,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 44–47, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. O. Z. Ameer, I. M. Salman, M. J. A. Siddiqui et al., “Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb,” The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 186–194, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. O. Edem and I. F. Usoh, “Biochemical changes in Wistar rats on oral doses of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus),” The American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 94–97, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. C. Uzochukwu and P. O. Osadeb, “Comparative evaluation of antidiabetic activities of Flavonoids extract and crude methanol extract of Loranthus micranthus parasitic on Kola acuminata,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 2–7, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. K. Obatomi, E. O. Bikomo, and V. J. Temple, “Anti-diabetic properties of the African mistletoe in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Sofowora, Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1982.
  26. W. C. Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, ELBS with Bailliere Tindall, 13th edition, 1989.
  27. J. B. Harborne, Phytochemical Method: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plants Analysis, Chapman and Hall, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1983.
  28. Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council, Washington, DC, USA, 1978.
  29. J. W. Geyer and D. Dabich, “Rapid method for determination of arginase activity in tissue homogenates,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 412–417, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Siedel, E. O. Hagele, J. Ziegenhorn, and A. W. Wahlefeld, “Reagent for the enzymatic determination of serum total cholesterol with improved lipolytic efficiency,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1075–1080, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Gordon and M. Gordon, “Enzymatic method to determine the serum HDL-cholesterol,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 62, pp. 707–708, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  32. N. J. Jacobs and P. J. VanDenmark, “Enzymatic determination of serum triglyceride.ch,” Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 88, pp. 250–255, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  33. W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, “Estimation of the concentration of LDL-cholesterol,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 499–515, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. G. Cook, “Creatinine assay in the presence of protein,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 485–486, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. G. Gurnall, C. T. Bardawill, and M. M. David, “Determination of serum protein by means of biuret reaction,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 177, pp. 751–766, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. K. Smarason, K. G. Allman, D. Young, and C. W. Redman, “Elevated levels of serum nitrate, a stable end product of nitric oxide, in women with pre-eclampsia,” The British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 538–543, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Armitage, “Interim anaglyses in clinical trials,” in Multiple Comparisons, Selection, and Applications in Biometry, F. M. Hoppe, Ed., pp. 391–402, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  38. T. B. Bolton, “Mechanisms of action of transmitters and other substances on smooth muscle,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 606–718, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. H. Gilani, S. R. Mandukhail, J. Iqbal et al., “Antispasmodic and vasodilator activities of Morinda citrifolia root extract are mediated through blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 10, article 2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. I. A. C. Menezes, I. J. A. Moreira, A. A. Carvalho, A. R. Antoniolli, and M. R. V. Santos, “Cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract from Caesalpinia ferrea: involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. M. F. Guerrero, P. Puebla, R. Carrón, M. L. Martín, L. Arteaga, and L. San Román, “Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Demougeot, A. Prigent-Tessier, C. Marie, and A. Berthelot, “Arginase inhibition reduces endothelial dysfunction and blood pressure rising in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 971–978, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Bagnost, A. Berthelot, M. Bouhaddi et al., “Treatment with the arginase inhibitor N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine improves vascular function and lowers blood pressure in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1110–1118, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. R. Beaglehole, R. Bonita, and A. Stewart, “Cardiovascular disease mortality trends in the western Pacific, 1968–1984,” The New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 101, no. 849, pp. 441–443, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Stamler, D. Wentworth, and J. D. Neaton, “Is the relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of death from coronary heart disease continous and graded?” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 20, pp. 2823–2828, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. N. Nordis and W. J. Mack, “Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and progression of coronary artery disease,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 6, pp. 209–214, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  47. D. Milosavjevic, A. Kontush, S. Griglio, G. Le Naour, J. Thrillet, and M. J. Chapman, “VLDL-induced triglyceride accumulation in human macrophages is mediated by modulation of LPL lipolytic activity in the absence of change in LPL mass,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1631, pp. 51–60, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  48. H. Bays and E. A. Stein, “Pharmacotherapy for atherogenic dyslipidaemia—a current therapies and future agents,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1901–1938, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. C. McGill Jr., “The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. B33–B39, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Nishida and H. Satoh, “Comparative vasodilating actions among terpenoids and flavonoids contained in Ginkgo biloba extract,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 339, no. 1-2, pp. 129–133, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus