Apple Procyanidins Suppress Amyloid -Protein Aggregation
Procyanidins extinguish Aβ precipitation. (a) Microscopic observation of Aβ42 precipitates by centrifugation in the presence of polyphenols. The aggregates were observed by 12.5-fold magnification. (b) SDS-PAGE analysis of soluble Aβ42 peptide of supernatants in reaction mixtures. Arbitrary density of monomeric Aβ42 bands was calculated in the right column, 5 μL/lane. (c) Aβ concentrations of supernatant and precipitate in the reaction mixtures. AP (100 μg/mL), PC (65 μg/mL), and MN (35 μg/mL) were incubated with Aβ42 (20 μM) for 24 hours and centrifuged to fractionate supernatants and pellets as described in Section 2 (ND: not detected; differences compared to vehicle groups, *** and * (Student's t-test)). Values are the means ± s.e.m., n = 3.