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Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7264080, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7264080
Research Article

In Silico Screening, Alanine Mutation, and DFT Approaches for Identification of NS2B/NS3 Protease Inhibitors

1Medicinal Chemistry Group, Institute of Chemistry of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Brazil
2Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
3King Institute of Preventive Medicine, Guindy, Chennai, India

Received 26 September 2015; Revised 13 December 2015; Accepted 15 December 2015

Academic Editor: Roberta Chiaraluce

Copyright © 2016 R. Balajee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To identify the ligand that binds to a target protein with high affinity is a nontrivial task in computer-assisted approaches. Antiviral drugs have been identified for NS2B/NS3 protease enzyme on the mechanism to cleave the viral protein using the computational tools. The consequence of the molecular docking, free energy calculations, and simulation protocols explores the better ligand. It provides in-depth structural insights with the catalytic triad of His51, Asp75, Ser135, and Gly133. The MD simulation was employed here to predict the stability of the complex. The alanine mutation has been performed and its stability was monitored by using the molecular dynamics simulation. The minimal RMSD value suggests that the derived complexes are close to equilibrium. The DFT outcome reveals that the HOMO-LUMO gap of Ligand19 is 2.86 kcal/mol. Among the considered ligands, Ligand19 shows the lowest gap and it is suggested that the HOMO of Ligand19 may transfer the electrons to the LUMO in the active regions. The calculated binding energy of Ligand19 using the DFT method is in good agreement with the docking studies. The pharmacological activity of ligand was performed and satisfies Lipinski rule of 5. Moreover, the computational results are compared with the available IC50 values of experimental results.