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Biochemistry Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 7463796, 5 pages
Research Article

Assessment of Salivary Adipokines Resistin, Visfatin, and Ghrelin as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Biomarkers

1Departments of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA
2Preventive and Community Dentistry, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Mythily Srinivasan; ude.ui@vinirsym

Received 17 August 2017; Accepted 31 October 2017; Published 1 February 2018

Academic Editor: Paul W. Huber

Copyright © 2018 Mythily Srinivasan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is emerging as a metabolic epidemic worldwide. Pathologically, dysregulation of many biological pathways precedes hyperglycemia and the clinical diagnosis of T2DM. Changing trajectories along the process of T2DM development necessitates frequent measurement of biomarkers for early identification of at-risk individuals and successful prevention. Increase in circulating inflammatory adipokines has been suggested as predictive of T2DM. Human saliva is an easily accessible biospecimen amenable for painless frequent collection and possesses nearly 50% of serum proteome. In this study, we measured the adipokines resistin, visfatin, TNF-α, and ghrelin as markers for T2DM in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) using specific assay kits. Resistin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher in T2DM saliva. Although the concentration of acylated or unacylated ghrelin was lower in diabetic saliva, the decrease was not significant. Since resistin and visfatin are biomarkers integral to T2DM pathology, their salivary assessments may receive clinical acceptance.