Validation of miRNA and cross-gene expression. (a) Representative immunohistochemical results of CALML4, SMAD6, PITX2, and TGFB2. (b) IHC staining positive rate of CALML4, SMAD6, PITX2, and TGFB2. (c) The expression of hsa-miR-196b-3p and hsa-miR-196b-5p from TCGA database. (d) The expression of hsa-miR-196b-3p and hsa-miR-196b-5p in 69 patients with or without H. pylori infection, and the expression level of (e) hsa-miR-196-3p, not (f) hsa-miR-196-3p, in patients with H. pylori infection was significantly higher. All tests were independently manipulated at least 3 times, with the conversion of gene expression value to log2 (fold change).