Genetic Diversity of Imipenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections at an Intensive Care UnitRead the full article
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Vasopressors and Nutrition Therapy: Safe Dose for the Outset of Enteral Nutrition?
Background and Aims. Patients with hemodynamic instability need to receive intensive treatment as fluid replacement and vasoactive drugs. In the meantime, it is supposed to initiate nutritional therapy within 24 to 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), as an essential part of patient’s intensive care and better outcomes. However, there are many controversies tangential to the prescription of enteral nutrition (EN) concomitant to the use of vasopressor and its doses. In this way, the present study aimed to identify what the literature presents of evidence to guide the clinical practice concerning the safe dose of vasopressors for the initiation of nutritional therapy in critically ill patients. Methods. This review was carried out in PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Medline databases. The descriptors were used to perform the search strategy: Critical Care, Intensive Care Units, Vasoconstrictor Agents, and Enteral Nutrition. Inclusion criteria were patients of both genders, over 18 years of age, using vasoactive drugs, with the possibility of receiving EN therapy, and articles written in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. In addition, exclusion criteria were case reports, non-papers, and repeated papers. Results. 10 articles met our inclusion criteria. Conclusion. It was observed that there are many controversies about the supply of EN in critically ill patients using vasopressor, especially about the safe dose, and it was not possible to identify a cutoff value for the beginning therapy. Despite the drug doses, clinical signs are still the most important parameters in the evaluation of EN tolerance.
Acute Kidney Injury Outcomes of Elderly and Nonelderly Patients in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital in a Developing Country
Background. Aging is associated with a high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), and the elderly with AKI show a higher mortality rate than those without AKI. In this study, we compared AKI outcomes between elderly and nonelderly patients in a university hospital in a developing country. Materials and Methods. This retrospective cohort study included patients with AKI who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2017. The patients were divided into the elderly (eAKI; age ≥65 years; n = 158) and nonelderly (nAKI; n = 142) groups. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, principle diagnosis, renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement, hospital course, and in-hospital mortality were recorded. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results. The eAKI group included more females, patients with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and patients with more comorbidities than the nAKI group. The etiology and staging of AKI were similar between the two groups. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality () and RRT requirement () between the two groups. After adjusting for covariates, the 28-day mortality rate was similar between the two groups (), but the 28-day RRT requirement was higher in the eAKI group than in the nAKI group (). Conclusion. Elderly and nonelderly ICU patients showed similar survival outcomes of AKI, although the elderly were at a higher risk of requiring RRT.
Early Mobilization Interventions in the Intensive Care Unit: Ongoing and Unpublished Randomized Trials
Background. Critical care societies recommend early mobilization (EM) as standard practice in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. However, there is limited randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence supporting EM’s effectiveness. Our objective was to identify ongoing or completed RCTs assessing EM’s effectiveness in the ICU. Method. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry for ongoing or completed but not published RCTs in an ICU setting with objective outcome measures. Results. There were 14 RCTs included in the analysis. All studies were in the general or mixed ICU setting (). Half of the studies () were small RCTs (<100 projected participants) and half () were medium-sized RCTs (100–999 participants). Inclusion criteria included mechanical ventilation use or expected use () and prehospital functional status (). Primary EM interventions were standard physiotherapist-based activities (), cycling (), and electrical muscle stimulation (). Only one study involved nurse-led EM. The most common assessment tool was the 6-minute walk test (). Primary outcome measures were physiological (), clinical (), patient-centered (), and healthcare resource use (). Most studies () involved post-ICU follow-up measures up to 1-year posthospitalization. There were no studies targeting older adults or people with acute cardiac disease. Conclusion. Identified studies will further the evidence base for EM’s effectiveness. There is a need for studies looking at specific patient populations that may benefit from EM, such as older adults and cardiac patients, as well as for novel EM delivery strategies, such as nurse-led EM.
The Forgotten Hemodynamic (PCO2 Gap) in Severe Sepsis
Background. Central venous-arterial carbon dioxide difference (PCO2 gap) can be a marker of cardiac output adequacy in global metabolic conditions that are less affected by the impairment of oxygen extraction capacity. We investigated the relation between the PCO2 gap, serum lactate, and cardiac index (CI) and prognostic value on admission in relation to fluid administration in the early phases of resuscitation in sepsis. We also investigated the chest ultrasound pattern A or B. Method. We performed a prospective observational study and recruited 28 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in a mixed ICU. We determined central venous PO2, PCO2, PCO2 gap, lactate, and CI at 0 and 6 hours after critical care unit (CCU) admission. The population was divided into two groups based on the PCO2 gap (cutoff value 0.8 kPa). Results. The CI was significantly lower in the high PCO2 gap group (). The high PCO2 gap group, on admission, required more administered fluid and vasopressors ( and , respectively). There was also a significant difference between the two groups for low mean pressure (), central venous O2 (), and lactate level (). The mean arterial pressure was lower in the high PCO2 gap group, and the lactate level was higher, indicating global hypoperfusion. The hospital mortality rate for all patients was 24.5% (7/28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 20% (2/12) for the low gap group and 30% (5/16) for the high gap group; the odds ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 0.5–5.5; ). Patients with a persistent or rising PCO2 gap larger than 0.8 kPa at T = 6 and 12 hours had a higher mortality change (n = 6; in-hospital mortality was 21.4%) than patients with a PCO2 gap of less than 0.8 kPa at T = 6 (n = 1; in-hospital mortality was 3%); this odds ratio was 5.3 (95% CI 0.9–30.7; ). The PCO2 gap had no relation with the chest ultrasound pattern. Conclusion. The PCO2 gap is an important hemodynamic variable in the management of sepsis-induced circulatory failure. The PCO2 gap can be a marker of the adequacy of the cardiac output status in severe sepsis. A high PCO2 gap value (>0.8 kPa) can identify situations in which increasing CO can be attempted with fluid resuscitation in severe sepsis. The PCO2 gap carries an important prognostic value in severe sepsis.
A Predictive Model for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Mortality Using Red Cell Distribution Width
Methods. This observational retrospective cohort study includes 318 ARDS patients extracted from an ICU database between the years of 2001 and 2008. Clinical factors including age, gender, comorbidity score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were chosen for the base model to predict ICU mortality. The RDW value at the time of ARDS diagnosis was added to the base model to determine if it improved its predictive ability. Results. 318 subjects were included; 113 (36%) died in the ICU. AUC for the base model without RDW was 0.76, and 0.78 following the addition of RDW . The NRI was 0.46 (), indicating that, in 46% of patients, the predictive probability of the model was improved by the inclusion of RDW. Conclusions. Adding RDW at time of ARDS diagnosis improved discrimination in a model using 4 clinical factors to predict ICU mortality.
Beta-Blocker Therapy Preserves Normal Splenic T-Lymphocyte Numbers Reduced in Proportion to Sepsis Severity in a Sepsis Model
Lymphocyte cell death contributes to sepsis-induced immunosuppression, leading to poor prognosis. This study examined whether sepsis severity and beta-blocker therapy could affect the degree of T-lymphocyte cell death in a mouse model of sepsis. In the first control study, 20 animals were allocated to 4 groups: control group with sham operation (group C, n = 5) and 3 groups with cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) performed at 3 different sites: proximal, middle, and distal cecum (groups CLP-P, CLP-M, and CLP-D, respectively; n = 5 in each group). Their spleens were resected under general anesthesia 24 hours after CLP, and the total number of normal splenic T lymphocytes per mouse and the percentage of apoptotic T lymphocytes were evaluated using flow cytometry. In the second experimental study, the effect of the beta-blocker esmolol was examined in CLP-P (group CLP-PE vs. CLP-P; n = 5 in each group). The total normal splenic T-lymphocyte numbers per mouse significantly decreased in proportion to CLP severity (group C, 18.6 × 106 (15 × 106–23.6 × 106); CLP-D, 9.2 × 106 (8.8 × 106–9.8 × 106); CLP-M, 6.7 × 106 (6.3 × 106–7.0 × 106); and CLP-P, 5.3 × 106 (5.1 × 106–6.8 × 106)). Beta-blocker therapy restored T-lymphocyte numbers (group CLP-PE vs. CLP-P; 6.94 ± 1.52 × 106 vs. 4.18 ± 1.71 × 106; ) without affecting apoptosis percentage. Beta-blocker therapy might improve sepsis-induced immunosuppression via normal splenic T-lymphocyte preservation.