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Critical Care Research and Practice
Volume 2013, Article ID 479730, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/479730
Review Article

Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury in the Intensive Care Unit

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, UHN67, Portland, OR 97239-3098, USA

Received 1 December 2012; Accepted 31 January 2013

Academic Editor: Manuel E. Herrera-Gutiérrez

Copyright © 2013 James Case et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has increased during the past decade due to increased acuity as well as increased recognition. Early epidemiology studies were confounded by erratic definitions of AKI until recent consensus guidelines (RIFLE and AKIN) standardized its definition. This paper discusses the incidence of AKI in the ICU with focuses on specific patient populations. The overall incidence of AKI in ICU patients ranges from 20% to 50% with lower incidence seen in elective surgical patients and higher incidence in sepsis patients. The incidence of contrast-induced AKI is less (11.5%–19% of all admissions) than seen in the ICU population at large. AKI represents a significant risk factor for mortality and can be associated with mortality greater than 50%.