Figure 1: The figure shows how an RFM can help to optimize PPV in a 26-week preterm infant with 800 gram birth weight. In (a) during inflations the airway pressure increased form baseline (PEEP) to the set PIP. Similar gas flow towards and away from the infant indicates no leak around the mask. In addition the wave returns to baseline indicating good mask ventilation. Expired CO2 can be observed once the wave returns to baseline. With the start of the next inflation expired CO2 drops to zero. In (b) PEEP and PIP are achieved; however gas flow only moves towards the infant and only minimal gas flow away from the infant indicating mask leak. The wave shows inspiratory ( ) but no expiratory ( ). Mask leak indicated as a straight line in the curve, and no expired CO2 displayed. In (c) displays airway obstruction which can be identified by minimal or no gas flow movements, no expired CO2, and no or minimal waves.