Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Critical Care Research and Practice
Volume 2013, Article ID 892710, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/892710
Review Article

From Macrohemodynamic to the Microcirculation

1Sezione di Anestesia e Rianimazione, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Sanità Pubblica, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Via Tronto 10, 60020 Torrette (Ancona), Italy
2AOU Ospedali Riuniti, Via Conca 71, 60020 Ancona, Italy
3Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Received 9 November 2012; Revised 22 January 2013; Accepted 28 January 2013

Academic Editor: M. P. Fink

Copyright © 2013 Abele Donati et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. J. Swan, W. Ganz, J. Forrester, H. Marcus, G. Diamond, and D. Chonette, “Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 283, no. 9, pp. 447–451, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. Ganz, R. Donoso, H. S. Marcus, J. S. Forrester, and H. J. C. Swan, “A new technique for measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution in man,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 392–396, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. D. Bland, W. C. Shoemaker, E. Abraham, and J. C. Cobo, “Hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns in surviving and nonsurviving postoperative patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 85–90, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, H. B. Kram, K. Waxman, and T. S. Lee, “Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1176–1186, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Gattinoni, L. Brazzi, P. Pelosi et al., “A trial of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 16, pp. 1025–1032, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Hayes, A. C. Timmins, E. H. S. Yau, M. Palazzo, C. J. Hinds, and D. Watson, “Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 330, no. 24, pp. 1717–1722, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. L. Vincent, “The relationship between oxygen demand, oxygen uptake, and oxygen supply,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 16, supplement 2, pp. S145–S148, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. de Backer, J. Berre, J. J. Moraine, C. Melot, J. Vanfraechem, and J. L. Vincent, “Effects of dobutamine on the relationship between oxygen consumption and delivery in healthy volunteers: comparison with sodium nitroprusside,” Clinical Science (London), vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. Boyd, R. M. Grounds, and E. D. Bennett, “A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 270, no. 22, pp. 2699–2707, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. M. A. Lobo, P. F. Salgado, V. G. T. Castillo et al., “Effects of maximizing oxygen delivery on morbidity and mortality in high-risk surgical patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 3396–3404, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. W. Kern and W. C. Shoemaker, “Meta-analysis of hemodynamic optimization in high-risk patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1686–1692, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Brienza, M. T. Giglio, M. Marucci, and T. Fiore, “Does perioperative hemodynamic optimization protect renal function in surgical patients? A meta-analytic study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 2079–2090, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. T. Giglio, M. Marucci, M. Testini, and N. Brienza, “Goal-directed haemodynamic therapy and gastrointestinal complications in major surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 637–646, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Donati, S. Loggi, J. C. Preiser et al., “Goal-directed intraoperative therapy reduces morbidity and length of hospital stay in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 1817–1824, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Donati, L. Cola, R. Danieli, E. Adrario, C. Givoannini, and P. Pietropaoli, “Predictivity associated with oxygen-transporting hemodynamic parameters: relation between the cardiac index and oxygen extraction,” Minerva Anestesiologica, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 241–247, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Rivers, B. Nguyen, S. Havstad et al., “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 19, pp. 1368–1377, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. E. Marik and J. Varon, “Goal-directed therapy for severe sepsis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 13, pp. 1025–1026, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. A. Alhashemi, M. Cecconi, and C. K. Hofer, “Cardiac output monitoring: an integrative perspective,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 2, article 14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Donati, R. Nardella, V. Gabbanelli et al., “The ability of PiCCO versus LiDCO variables to detect changes in cardiac index: a prospective clinical study,” Minerva Anestesiologica, vol. 74, no. 7-8, pp. 367–374, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Donati, P. Pelaia, P. Pietropaoli, and J. C. Preiser, “Do use ScvO2 and O2ERe as therapeutical goals,” Minerva Anestesiologica, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 483–484, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. E. Marik and H. Desai, “Goal directed fluid therapy,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 18, no. 38, pp. 6215–6224, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris et al., “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation,” Nature Medicine, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1209–1213, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. T. Goedhart, M. Khalilzada, R. Bezemer, J. Merza, and C. Ince, “Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging: a novel stroboscopic LED ring-based imaging modality for clinical assessment of the microcirculation,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 15101–15114, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. C. Boerma, K. R. Mathura, P. H. van der Voort, P. E. Spronk, and C. Ince, “Quantifying bedside-derived imaging of microcirculatory abnormalities in septic patients: a prospective validation study,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. R601–606, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. de Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma et al., “How to evaluate the microcirculation: report of a round table conference,” Critical Care, vol. 11, article R101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Ince, “The microcirculation is the motor of sepsis,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. S13–S19, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. A. den Uil, E. Klijn, W. K. Lagrand et al., “The microcirculation in health and critical disease,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 161–170, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. J. Morin, N. Unno, R. A. Hodin, and M. P. Fink, “Differential expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger rna along the longitudinal and crypt-villus axes of the intestine in endotoxemic rats,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1258–1264, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. P. Revelly, T. Ayuse, N. Brienza, H. E. Fessler, and J. L. Robotham, “Endotoxic shock alters distribution of blood flow within the intestinal wall,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1345–1351, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. A. Price, D. A. Spain, M. A. Wilson, P. D. Harris, and R. N. Garrison, “Subacute sepsis impairs vascular smooth muscle contractile machinery and alters vasoconstrictor and dilator mechanisms,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. H. Baker and F. R. Wilmoth, “Microvascular responses to E. coli endotoxin with altered adrenergic activity,” Circulatory Shock, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 165–176, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. R. Condon, J. E. Kim, E. A. Deitch, G. W. Machiedo, and Z. Spolarics, “Appearance of an erythrocyte population with decreased deformability and hemoglobin content following sepsis,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 284, no. 6, pp. H2177–H2184, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. O. K. Baskurt, A. Temiz, and H. J. Meiselman, “Red blood cell aggregation in experimental sepsis,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 183–190, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. M. Bateman, M. D. Sharpe, and C. G. Ellis, “Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular dysfunction in sepsis - Hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and nitric oxide,” Critical Care, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 359–373, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. M. Tarbell and M. Y. Pahakis, “Mechanotransduction and the glycocalyx,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 259, no. 4, pp. 339–350, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Gouverneur, B. Van Den Berg, M. Nieuwdorp, E. Stroes, and H. Vink, “Vasculoprotective properties of the endothelial glycocalyx: effects of fluid shear stress,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 259, no. 4, pp. 393–400, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Y. Rady, E. P. Rivers, and R. M. Nowak, “Resuscitation of the critically ill in the ED: responses of blood pressure, heart rate, shock index, central venous oxygen saturation, and lactate,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 218–225, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Dubin, M. O. Pozo, C. A. Casabella et al., “Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study,” Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 3, article no. R92, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Persistent-microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1825–1831, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. M. Bateman and K. R. Walley, “Microvascular resuscitation as a therapeutic goal in severe sepsis,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. S27–S32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. P. C. Top, C. Ince, N. De Meij, M. Van Dijk, and D. Tibboel, “Persistent low microcirculatory vessel density in nonsurvivors of sepsis in pediatric intensive care,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 8–13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. de Backer, J. Creteur, J. C. Preiser, M. J. Dubois, and J. L. Vincent, “Microvascular blood flow is altered in patients with sepsis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 98–104, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Sakr, M. J. Dubois, D. de Backer, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Persistent-microcirculatory alterations are associated with organ failure and death in patients with septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1825–1831, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. L. Vincent, “Drotrecogin alfa (activated): the treatment for severe sepsis?” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1763–1777, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. de Backer, C. Verdant, M. Chierego, M. Koch, A. Gullo, and J. L. Vincent, “Effects of drotrecogin alfa activated on microcirculatory alterations in patients with severe sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1918–1924, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Donati, M. Romanelli, L. Botticelli et al., “Recombinant activated protein C treatment improves tissue perfusion and oxygenation in septic patients measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Critical Care, vol. 13, supplement 5, p. S12, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. N. Hoffmann, B. Vollmar, M. W. Laschke, J. M. Fertmann, K. W. Jauch, and M. D. Menger, “Microcirculatory alterations in ischemia-reperfusion injury and sepsis: effects of activated protein C and thrombin inhibition,” Critical Care, vol. 9, supplement 4, pp. S33–S37, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. V. M. Ranieri, B. T. Thompson, P. S. Barie et al., “Drotrecogin alfa (activated) in adults with septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 22, pp. 2055–2064, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. A. Morelli, C. Ertmer, P. Pietropaoli, and M. Westphal, “Terlipressin: a promising vasoactive agent in hemodynamic support of septic shock,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 10, no. 15, pp. 2569–2575, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Morelli, A. Donati, C. Ertmer et al., “Short-term effects of terlipressin bolus infusion on sublingual microcirculatory blood flow during septic shock,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 963–969, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Morelli, A. Donati, C. Ertmer et al., “Effects of vasopressinergic receptor agonists on sublingual microcirculation in norepinephrine-dependent septic shock,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 5, p. R217, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. M. Lange, C. Ertmer, S. Rehberg et al., “Effects of two different dosing regimens of terlipressin on organ functions in ovine endotoxemia,” Inflammation Research, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 429–437, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Morelli, A. Donati, C. Ertmer et al., “Levosimendan for resuscitating the microcirculation in patients with septic shock: a randomized controlled study,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 6, article R232, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. D. de Backer, J. Creteur, M. J. Dubois, Y. Sakr, and J. L. Vincent, “Microvascular alterations in patients with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock,” American Heart Journal, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 91–99, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. Lam, K. D. Sjauw, J. P. S. Henriques, C. Ince, and B. A. de Mol, “Improved microcirculation in patients with an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with the Impella LP2.5 percutaneous left ventricular assist device,” Clinical Research in Cardiology, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 311–318, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Erol-Yilmaz, B. Atasever, K. Mathura et al., “Cardiac resynchronization improves microcirculation,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 95–99, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. D. H. Munsterman, P. W. G. Elbers, A. Ozdemir, E. P. A. van Dongen, M. van Iterson, and C. Ince, “Withdrawing intra-aortic balloon pump support paradoxically improves microvascular flow,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 4, article R161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. A. den Uil, W. K. Lagrand, P. E. Spronk et al., “Low-dose nitroglycerin improves microcirculation in hospitalized patients with acute heart failure,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 386–390, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Boldt and C. Ince, “The impact of fluid therapy on microcirculation and tissue oxygenation in hypovolemic patients: a review,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1299–1308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. Nakajima, N. Baudry, J. Duranteau, and E. Vicaut, “Microcirculation in intestinal villi: a comparison between hemorrhagic and endotoxin shock,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 8 I, pp. 1526–1530, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. I. Korzonek-Szlacheta and B. Gwóźdź, “Effects of endothelin-1 on prevention of microvascular endothelium injuries in hemorrhagic shock in rats,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 98–106, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. X. Fang, W. Tang, S. Sun et al., “Comparison of buccal microcirculation between septic and hemorrhagic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. S447–S453, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Legrand, E. G. Mik, G. M. Balestra et al., “Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats,” Anesthesiology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 119–127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. N. A. Vellinga, E. C. Boerma, M. Koopmans et al., “Study design of the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (microSOAP): an international multicenter observational study of sublingual microcirculatory alterations in intensive care patients,” Critical Care Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 121752, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar