Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Child Development Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 893492, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/893492
Research Article

Lost in Translation? Comparing British, Japanese, and Italian Children’s Theory-of-Mind Performance

1Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RQ, UK
2Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
3Department of Humanities, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, 6-27100 Pavia, Italy

Received 29 August 2013; Accepted 5 December 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editor: Andrew N. Meltzoff

Copyright © 2014 Claire Hughes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Blair and R. P. Razza, “Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten,” Child Development, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 647–663, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Lecce, M. Caputi, and C. Hughes, “Does sensitivity to criticism mediate the relationship between theory of mind and academic achievement,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 313–331, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Hughes, R. Ensor, and A. Marks, “Individual differences in false belief understanding are stable from 3 to 6 years of age and predict children's mental state talk with school friends,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 96–112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Banerjee, D. Watling, and M. Caputi, “Peer relations and the understanding of faux pas: longitudinal evidence for bidirectional associations,” Child Development, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1887–1905, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Caputi, S. Lecce, A. Pagnin, and R. Banerjee, “Longitudinal effects of theory of mind on later peer relations: the role of prosocial behaviour,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 48, pp. 257–270, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. C. Hughes, Social Understanding, Social Lives: From Toddlerhood Through To the Transition to School, Psychology Press, London, UK, 2011.
  7. G. Pavarini, D. de Hollanda Souza, and C. Hawk, “Parental practices and theory of mind development,” Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol. 22, pp. 844–853.
  8. J. Perner, T. Ruffman, and S. Leekam, “Theory of mind is contagious: you catch it from your sibs,” Child Development, vol. 65, pp. 1228–1238, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  9. C. Lewis, N. H. Freeman, C. Kyriakidou, K. Maridaki-Kassotaki, and D. M. Berridge, “Social influences on false belief access: specific sibling influences or general apprenticeship?” Child Development, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 2930–2947, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Ensor and C. Hughes, “Content or connectedness? Mother-child talk and early social understanding,” Child Development, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 201–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Ensor, R. T. Devine, A. Marks, and C. Hughes, “Mothers’ cognitive references to two-year-olds predict theory of mind at ages 6 and 10,” Child Development, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. T. Ruffman, L. Slade, and E. Crowe, “The relation between children's and mothers' mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding,” Child Development, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 734–751, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Dunn, “Children as psychologists: the later correlates of individual differences in understanding of emotions and other minds,” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 9, pp. 187–201, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. C. Hughes, K. K. Fujisawa, R. Ensor, S. Lecce, and R. Marfleet, “Cooperation and conversations about the mind: a study of individual differences in 2-year-olds and their siblings,” British Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 53–72, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Hughes and J. Dunn, “Understanding mind and emotion: longitudinal associations with mental-state talk between young friends,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1026–1037, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Avis and P. Harris, “Belief-desire reasoning among Baka children: evidence for a universal conception of mind,” Child Development, vol. 62, pp. 460–467, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  17. T. Callaghan, P. Rochat, A. Lillard et al., “Synchrony in the onset of mental-state reasoning: evidence from five cultures,” Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 378–384, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Liu, H. M. Wellman, T. Tardif, and M. A. Sabbagh, “Theory of mind development in Chinese children: a meta-analysis of false-belief understanding across cultures and languages,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 523–531, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Shinagawa, S. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and H. Maekawa, Nihonban WAIS-R Seijin Chinou Kensahou, Nihon Bunka Kagakusha, Tokyo, Japan, 1990.
  20. R. T. Devine and C. Hughes, “Relations between false-belief understanding and executive function in early childhood: a meta-analysis,” Child Development. In press.
  21. A. Shahaeian, C. C. Peterson, V. Slaughter, and H. M. Wellman, “Culture and the sequence of steps in theory of mind development,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1239–1247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Lewis, M. Koyasu, S. Oh, A. Ogawa, B. Short, and Z. Huang, “Culture, executive function, and social understanding,” New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, vol. 2009, no. 123, pp. 69–85, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Oh and C. Lewis, “Korean preschoolers' advanced inhibitory control and its relation to other executive skills and mental state understanding,” Child Development, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 80–99, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Koyasu, “Can visual feedback effect perspective-taking behavior in young children?” Psychologia, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 91–103, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Naito and K. Koyama, “The development of false-belief understanding in Japanese children: delay and difference?” International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 290–304, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Lillard, “Ethnopsychologies: cultural variations in theories of mind,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 3–32, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. M. Wellman, F. Fang, and C. C. Peterson, “Sequential Progressions in a theory-of-mind scale: longitudinal perspectives,” Child Development, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 780–792, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Hughes and J. Dunn, “Understanding mind and emotion: longitudinal associations with mental-state talk between young friends,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1026–1037, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Harris, C. Johnson, D. Hutton, G. Andrews, and T. Cooke, “Young children's theory of mind and emotion,” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 3, pp. 379–400, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. A. Miller, “Children's understanding of second-order mental states,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 749–773, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Milligan, J. W. Astington, and L. A. Dack, “Language and theory of mind: meta-analysis of the relation between language ability and false-belief understanding,” Child Development, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 622–646, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. M. Byrne and T. L. Campbell, “Cross-cultural comparisons and the presumption of equivalent measurement and theoretical structure: a look beneath the surface,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 555–574, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Lecce, M. Caputi, and C. Hughes, “Does sensitivity to criticism mediate the relationship between theory of mind and academic achievement,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 313–331, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Brown, Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research, The Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 2006.
  35. Cambridgeshire Country Council, “Household Income,” Cambridgeshire, 2009, http://www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk/business/research/economylab/labour/houseincome.htm.
  36. Ministry for Internal Affairs and Communications, “Chapter 13: Family budgets and prices,” 2013, http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c0117.htm#c13.
  37. G. di Ghistanzoni Cardoni, “Camera di Commercio Pavia,” 2013, http://www.pv.camcom.it/index.phtml?Id_VMenu=1.
  38. R. Ensor, R. Devine, and C. Hughes, “Mothers’ cognitive references to two-year-olds predicts theory of mind at ages 6 and 10,” Child Development. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. C. Hughes, A. Adlam, F. Happé, J. Jackson, A. Taylor, and A. Caspi, “Good test-retest reliability for standard and advanced false-belief tasks across a wide range of abilities,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 483–490, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Hughes and S. Lecce, “The Italian Job? Comparing theory of mind in British and Italian children,” British Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 28, pp. 747–7766, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. Perner and H. Wimmer, ““John thinks that Mary thinks that...“ attribution of second-order beliefs by 5- to 10-year-old children,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 437–471, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Sullivan, D. Zaitchik, and H. Tager-Flusberg, “Preschoolers can attribute second-order beliefs,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 30, pp. 395–402, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  43. E. Meins, C. Fernyhough, R. Wainwright, M. Das Gupta, E. Fradley, and M. Tuckey, “Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding,” Child Development, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1715–1726, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Tardif, M. Shatz, and L. Naigles, “Caregiver speech and children's use of nouns versus verbs: a comparison of English, Italian, and Mandarin,” Journal of Child Language, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 535–565, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. R. Divgi, “Calculation of the tetrachoric correlation coefficient,” Psychometrika, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 169–172, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Wechsler, The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, The Psychological Corporation, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2003.
  47. R. Kline, Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (Methodology in the Social Sciences), Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2012.
  48. B. M. Byrne, R. J. Shavelson, and B. Muthén, “Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: the issue of partial measurement invariance,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 456–466, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. K. Muthen and B. O. Muthen, MPlus: Statistical Analysis With Latent Variables User Guide, Muthen and Muthen, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 6th edition, 2010.
  50. J. Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1988.
  51. J. Cohen, “A power primer,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 155–159, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Meins, C. Fernyhough, R. Wainwright, M. Das Gupta, E. Fradley, and M. Tuckey, “Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding,” Child Development, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1715–1726, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. H. Bornstein, L. R. Cote, and P. Venuti, “Parenting beliefs and behaviors in northern and southern groups of Italian mothers of young infants,” Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 663–675, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. H. Bornstein, D. L. Putnick, J. T. D. Suwalsky et al., “Emotional relationships in mothers and infants: culture-common and community-specific characteristics of dyads from rural and metropolitan settings in Argentina, Italy, and the United States,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 171–197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. H.-C. Hsu and M. Lavelli, “Perceived and observed parenting behavior in American and Italian first-time mothers across the first 3 months,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 503–518, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Tobin, Y. Hsueh, and M. Karasawa, Preschool in Three Cultures Revisited: China, Japan, and the United States, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2009.
  57. T. Ruffman, J. Perner, M. Naito, L. Parkin, and W. A. Clements, “Older (but not younger) siblings facilitate false belief understanding,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 161–174, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. OECD, “Families and Children: Family Database,” 2012, http://www.oecd.org/els/family/oecdfamilydatabase.htm.
  59. T. Ruffman, J. Perner, M. Naito, L. Parkin, and W. A. Clements, “Older (but not younger) siblings facilitate false belief understanding,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 161–174, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Lewis, Z. Huang, and M. Rooksby, “Chinese preschoolers' false belief understanding: is social knowledge underpinned by parental styles, social interactions or executive functions?” Psychologia, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 252–266, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Wei, Scrap Live-in Rule for Maids, Say Advocacy Groups, South China Morning Post, 2013.
  62. A. McAlister and C. Peterson, “A longitudinal study of child siblings and theory of mind development,” Cognitive Development, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 258–270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. T. Devine and C. Hughes, “Relations between false-belief understanding and executive function in early childhood: a meta-analysis,” Child Development. In press.