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Child Development Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 189195, 15 pages
Research Article

Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

1Tilburg Centre for Cognition and Communication, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands
2Stanford University Developmental Psychology, Language Learning Lab, 50 Serra Mall, Margaret Jacks Building, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, University Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK

Received 31 July 2015; Revised 12 October 2015; Accepted 10 November 2015

Academic Editor: Magdalena Janus

Copyright © 2015 Paul Vogt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version) into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.