Effect of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin on QT Interval Prolongation and Other Cardiac Arrhythmias in COVID-19 Confirmed PatientsRead the full article
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Onset of Hyperkalemia following the Administration of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker
Introduction. In spite of the established importance of detecting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker- (ARB-) induced hyperkalemia, there have not been many studies on the time of its occurrence. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records to determine the onset time and incidence rate of hyperkalemia ( or 6.0 mEq/L) among hospitalized patients newly started on a 15-day ACEI or ARB therapy. Results. Among 3101 hospitalized patients, hyperkalemia incidence was 0.5%–0.9% and 0.8%–2.1% in the ACEI and ARB groups, respectively. However, it was not significantly different among different ARB types. Hyperkalemia’s onset was distributed throughout 15 days, without any trend. Hyperkalemia incidence was 7.3 and 35.1 times higher at 5.5 mEq/L (, , ) and 6.0 mEq/L (, , ), respectively, than the baseline creatinine level. Hyperkalemia incidence in patients with chronic renal failure was 5.7 and 9.2 times higher at 5.5 mEq/L (, , ) and 6.0 mEq/L (, , ), respectively. Conclusions. It is unlikely that it is necessary to monitor hyperkalemia immediately after administration of ACEI or ARB. However, when prescribed for patients with abnormal kidney function, clinicians should always consider the possibility of developing hyperkalemia.
Candidate Genes Identified in Systemic Sclerosis-Related Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Were Associated with Immunity, Inflammation, and Cytokines
Background. Pulmonary complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc), including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), are the leading causes of patient death. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of its etiology are unclear. This study’s objective was to identify the candidate genes involved in the progression of SSc-PAH and investigate the genes' function. Methods. The gene expression profiles of GSE33463 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. A free-scale gene coexpression network was constructed using the weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to explore the association between gene sets and clinical features and identify candidate biomarkers. Then, gene ontology analysis was performed. A second dataset was used, GSE19617, to validate the hub genes. The verified hub genes’ potential function was further explored using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Results. Through average link-level clustering, a total of seven modules were classified. A total of 938 hub genes were identified in the key module, and the key module’s function mainly enriched was related to chemokine activities. Subsequently, four candidate genes, BTG3, CCR2, RAB10, and TMEM60, were filtered. The expression levels of these four hub genes were consistent in the GSE19617 and GSE33463 datasets. We plotted the ROC curve of the hub genes (all ). Furthermore, the results of the GSEA for hub genes were correlated with complement and inflammatory responses. Conclusions. The hub genes (BTG3, CCR2, RAB10, and TMEM60) performed well in distinguishing the SSc-PAH patients from controls, and some biological functions, related to immunity, inflammation, and cytokines, might pave the way for follow-up studies on the diagnosis and treatment of SSc-PAH.
The Effect of 3-Month Growth Hormone Administration and 12-Month Follow-Up Duration among Heart Failure Patients Four Weeks after Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Double-Blinded Clinical Trial
Background. The probable impact of growth hormone (GH) as a heart failure (HF) treatment strategy is still less investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relation of 3-month GH prescription on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), interventricular septum (IVS), posterior left ventricle (LV) thickness, end systolic and end diastolic diameters (ESD and EDD), and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) among Iranian individuals suffering from HF due to MI attack. Methods. A total of 16 clinically stable participants with HF diagnosis and % were selected for enrollment in this pilot randomized double-blinded study. They were randomly assigned equally to groups received 5 IU subcutaneous GH or placebo. Injections were done every other day for a total of 3-month duration. After termination of intervention and nine months afterwards, cardiac outcomes were assessed. Results. Baseline and 12-month posttrial participants’ characteristics were similar. LVEF was increased significantly by three months started from baseline in individuals receiving GH (% to %, ). During the next 9 months of follow-up concurrent with cessation of injections, LVEF was declined (% to %, ). LVEF and ESD were remarkably higher and lower in GH group compared with controls by the end date of injections (% vs. %, and mm vs. mm, , respectively). No other considerable association was found in terms of other predefined variables in neither GH nor placebo groups. Conclusions. GH administration in HF patients was associated with increased LVEF function. Several randomized clinical trials are necessary proving this relation. This trial is registered with IRCT201704083035N1.
Impact of Thrombocytopenia on In-Hospital Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Background. Thrombocytopenia was intuitively considered to be associated with higher risk of bleeding and multiple comorbidities after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, controversial results exist, and the real-world clinical impact of thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing PCI is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of baseline thrombocytopenia on the prognosis of patients undergoing PCI. Methods. Using the West China Hospital Inpatient Sample database, patients who underwent PCI were identified from August 2012 to January 2019. Baseline thrombocytopenia was defined as a preprocedural platelet count of or less obtained from a routine blood sample taken within 48 hours before coronary PCI. The clinical effect of the advanced thrombocytopenia group (), according to the median value of platelet count in the thrombocytopenia cohort, was further assessed. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death, bleeding events, and post-PCI transfusion. Results. Of 9531 patients enrolled in our study, 936 had baseline thrombocytopenia and 8595 patients did not have. There were no significant differences in the primary outcome between the two groups. However, advanced thrombocytopenia was independently associated with higher risk of primary outcome (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.65, ). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with thrombocytopenia were associated with higher odds of major bleeding () (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.24 to 5.44, ). Compared with the nonthrombocytopenia group, the thrombocytopenia group with ticagrelor use had higher odds of major bleeding (OR 9.7, 95% CI 1.57 to 60.4 versus OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.69, interaction ). Conclusions. It seems feasible for patients with thrombocytopenia to receive PCI, but close attention should be paid to advanced thrombocytopenia, the risk of postprocedure bleeding in ACS patients, and the use of more potent P2Y12 inhibitor.
Rivaroxaban: Expanded Role in Cardiovascular Disease Management—A Literature Review
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are widely used for the prevention of stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and as prophylaxis after hip and knee surgery after approval by the Food and Drug Administration. In the last decade, DOACs were studied for various indications; this review is focused on rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, which is used in an expanded evidence-based fashion for coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, malignancy, and prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis in acute medical illnesses.
New Clinical Classification for Ventricular Free Wall Rupture following Acute Myocardial Infarction
Ventricular free wall rupture (FWR) is a catastrophic complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, patients with FWR die of cardiac tamponade secondary to intrapericardial hemorrhage that can be treated if properly diagnosed. Unfortunately, FWR was still not diagnosed and classified quickly and accurately. The aim of this study was to present a new clinical classification for FWR. Seventy-eight patients with FWR after STEMI were enrolled in the study. We classified FWR, according to clinical situations after onset, into the cardiac arrest type, unstable type, and stable type. The cardiac arrest type was the most common type, accounting for about 83.3%. 90.8% of patients of this type were complicated with electromechanical dissociation at the time of FWR onset, and 100% of patients of this type died in the hospital. The unstable type was characterized by sudden clinical condition changes with moderate/massive pericardial effusion. In this study, 9.0% of patients were diagnosed as the unstable type. The average time from onset to death was 4.5 hours. This period was the “golden time” to rescue such patients. The stable types usually have stable hemodynamics, but may worsen, requiring rigorous detection of pericardial effusion and vital signs. In this study, 7.7% of patients were diagnosed as the stable type, and 83.5% of them survived in the hospital. The new clinical classification provides a basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of FWR. The clinical application of the new classification is expected to improve the prognosis of FWR patients.