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Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 673012, 5 pages
Clinical Study

Verbal Episodic Memory and Endogenous Estradiol: An Association in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

1Memory Clinic and Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, 89075 Ulm, Germany
2Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
3Psychiatry II Department of Gerontopsychiatry, University of Ulm, 89321 Ulm, Germany

Received 3 May 2011; Revised 5 September 2011; Accepted 19 September 2011

Academic Editor: Fulvio Lauretani

Copyright © 2011 D. M. Bittner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the continuum of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal controls, a possible association of verbal memory and endogenous estradiol (E2) levels was investigated. Verbal episodic memory was measured with a german version of the California verbal memory test (CVLT). Results were controlled for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) phenotype. We studied 37 controls, 32 MCIs and 117 ADs. Groups differed in all trials of the CVLT ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) and in E2 levels ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . E2 levels differed significantly between groups only among females ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . In females correcting for age and ApoE, there was an overall correlation between CVLT delayed recall and level of E2   ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 2 5 ) . Stepwise regression analyses found E2 level to be a significant predictor for CVLT delayed recall ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . It may be concluded that lower E2 levels occur more in the course of the disease than may be considered as a risk factor per se.