Table 1: The behavioral intervention protocol.


Week 1. Precontemplation
Goal: increase awareness of the need for change
Change process: consciousness raising, dramatic relief, and environmental reevaluation
Strategies: (1) encourage thinking about change
    (2) discuss feelings and perceptions of exercise
    (3) give personalized feedback about the risk of sedentary lifestyle and low exercise tolerance
    (4) personalize information about the benefits of initiating an exercise program and how
      inactivity affects role implementation and social activities

Week 2. Contemplation
Goal: motivate and increase confidence in the ability to change
Change process: consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, social liberation, self-liberation, and help participant to set realistic expectations
reinforced by small success
Strategies: (1) continue explaining regarding personal risk and benefits about exercising
     (2) decrease the barrier to exercise
     (3) help them to make a definite commitment to change and goal setting
(i) Barriers and motivators worksheet was provided
(ii) Encourage participants to replace unhelpful thoughts with more productive thought into a “Positive Self Talk” sessions.

Week 3. Preparation
Goal: negotiate a plan for exercise
Change process: self-reevaluation, helping relationship, self-liberation, and help participant to set realistic expectations reinforced by small success
Strategies: (1) create a new self-image as an exerciser
    (2) make a public commitment to exercise
    (3) identify alternative for an exercise at home, individually or in a group.
    (4) facilitate exercise efficacy involving support from others such as spouse and children
    (5) encourage a component of behavioral change where they can experience success
(i) Barriers and motivators worksheet was provided
(ii) Use “Behavioral Contract and Presentation entitled “How to handle stress”” by the researcher.

Week. 4 Action
Goal: reaffirm commitment to exercise and implement the plan
Change process: reinforcement management, helping relationship, counter-conditioning, and stimulus control
Strategies: (1) talk on positive reinforcement with rewards/incentives and “role model” for the other group
    (2) mobilizing social support to participate in the process or reinforce the process
    (3) introduce additional exercise and correct techniques during exercising through behavioral
     manual given to each of the participants
    (4) exercise log book and a group task

Week 5. Maintenance
Goal: problem solving
Change process: counter-conditioning, helping relationship, and reinforcement management
Strategies: (1) plan for resisting temptation to skip exercise sessions
     (2) join an exercise group
     (3) a meaningful reward for the successful exerciser
     (4) behavioral manual

(i) All strategies were done through powerpoint presentations, face-to-face interview, and counseling, supervised by the researcher and
  trained physiotherapists.
(ii) Every Monday and Wednesday (30 min) for each week.