Table 1: Classification criteria for ageing groups.

Successful ageingUsual ageingMild cognitive impairment

(1) Free from diabetes, hypertension, cancer, heart diseases, chronic lung diseases, and stroke(1) Participants with average performance in most of the cognitive test administered (scores above MCI but below SA)(1) Subjective memory complaint by participants or caregivers
(2) No functional limitations as indicated by full score in ADL(2) No dementia(2) Objective memory impairment [poor performance in one or more cognitive tests (Digit span and RAVLT) with score of at least 1.5 SD below the mean average]
(3) Normal global function as indicated by MMSE score ≥ 22(3) No or very minimal functional limitations(3) No dementia
(4) No depression by having a score of ≤4 in the GDS-15 item(4) No limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL)
(5) Good quality of life(5) No or very minimal difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living by having a score of ≤1.5 SD from mean norm
(6) Good self-perceived health(6) Preserved global function by having MMSE score of ≥19

ADL: activities of daily living; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; GDS: Geriatric Depression Scale.