Table 2: Sociodemographic characteristics.

ParameterSA
()
UA
()
MCI
()
Total
()

Agea67.99 ± 5.5268.00 ± 5.5768.14 ± 5.6468.04 ± 5.56>0.05
Ethnic
 Malay61 (33.2)61 (33.2)62 (33.7)184 (61.3)>0.05
 Chinese36 (33.6)36 (33.6)35 (32.7)107 (35.7)
 Indian3 (33.3)3 (33.3)3 (33.3)9 (3.0)
Marriage status
 Single/widow/widower/divorced17 (17.0)19 (19.0)25 (25.0)61 (20.3)>0.05
 Married83 (83.0)81 (81.0)75 (75.0)239 (79.7)
Educational year
 ≤6 years44 (44.0)78 (78.0)81 (81.0)203 (67.7)<0.001
 >6 years56 (56.0)22 (22.0)19 (19.0)97 (32.3)
Smoking habit
 Smoking20 (20.0)20 (20.0)26 (26.0)66 (22.0)>0.05
 Past or nonsmokers80 (80.0)80 (80.0)74 (74.0)234 (78.0)
Cognitive measuresa
 MMSE26.34 ± 0.2223.24 ± 0.4022.18 ± 0.48<0.00
 Digit Span13.88 ± 0.3411.96 ± 0.3710.72 ± 0.39<0.00
 RAVLT8.82 ± 0.297.28 ± 0.301.68 ± 0.13<0.00
Physical functiona
 ADL14.00 ± 0.0012.42 ± 0.2512.17 ± 0.17<0.00
Depressive symptomsa
 GDS1.98 ± 0.142.07 ± 0.131.76 ± 0.13>0.05
Vitamin D intake 0.33 ± 0.770.25 ± 0.210.13 ± 0.33<0.05

SA: successful ageing; UA: usual ageing; MCI: mild cognitive impairment; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; ADL: activities of daily living; GDS: Geriatric Depression Scale. Chi-squared test, significant at . ne-way ANOVA (mean ± standard deviation). ignificant at between SA and MCI. ignificant at between SA, UA, and MCI. ignificant at between SA and UA, SA, and MCI.