Table 3: Prevalence of anemia among older men in Ecuador.

Characteristics Crude prevalenceOR (95% CI)

Age groups (years), %
 60–6919.5 (15.1, 24.9)1.00
 70–7927.9 (22.4, 34.1)1.56 (1.54, 1.59)
 ≥8034.2 (26.8, 42.6)1.81 (1.78, 1.84)
Race, %
 Indigenous15.6 (8.7, 26.4)0.63 (0.61, 0.65)
 Black26.3 (14.1, 43.9)1.01 (0.97, 1.05)
 Mestizo26.7 (22.6, 31.3)1.16 (1.14, 1.19)
 Mulatto19.5 (9.7, 35.1)0.65 (0.62, 0.68)
 White24.9 (16.0, 36.7)1.00
Area of residency, %
 Urban Andes Mountains23.3 (17.8, 29.9)0.94 (0.92, 0.96)
 Urban coast30.4 (24.3, 37.2)1.42 (1.40, 1.45)
 Rural Andes Mountains19.3 (14.5, 25.3)0.86 (0.84, 0.88)
 Rural coast24.5 (17.4, 33.5)1.00
Literacy, %
 Yes23.6 (20.0, 27.7)1.00
 No30.7 (23.9, 38.7)1.34 (1.32, 1.36)
Smoking, %
 Current24.8 (17.5, 33.8)1.12 (1.10, 1.14)
 Former26.2 (21.5, 31.6)1.10 (1.08, 1.11)
 Never23.6 (18.8, 29.2)1.00
BMI (kg/m2), %
 Underweight35.0 (18.5, 56.1)1.55 (1.48, 1.63)
 Normal29.5 (24.4, 35.1)1.49 (1.45, 1.52)
 Overweight18.7 (14.3, 24.2)0.82 (0.80, 0.84)
 Obesity19.0 (11.8, 29.3)1.00
Self-reported health, %
 Excellent to good18.2 (13.6, 23.9)1.00
 Fair to poor28.2 (24.1, 32.7)1.65 (1.62, 1.67)
ADL’s limitations, %
 Yes36.1 (28.8, 44.2)1.71 (1.69, 1.74)
 No22.0 (18.5, 26.0)1.00
Cognitive impairment, %
 Yes34.6 (26.0, 44.5)1.76 (1.72, 1.79)
 No21.9 (18.4, 25.8)1.00
Diabetes
 Yes25.6 (17.7, 35.6)1.04 (1.02, 1.06)
 No25.2 (21.7, 29.0)1.00
Cancer, %
 Yes68.0 (42.8, 85.7)6.53 (6.27, 6.80)
 No24.2 (21.0, 27.8)1.00
COPD, %
 Yes28.6 (18.4, 41.5)1.07 (1.04, 1.10)
 No24.9 (21.5, 28.6)1.00
Heart disease, %
 Yes21.9 (14.6, 31.7)0.65 (0.64, 0.67)
 No25.7 (22.2, 29.6)1.00
Arthritis,%
 Yes29.8 (22.5, 38.3)1.29 (1.27, 1.31)
 No24.0 (20.5, 28.0)1.00
CRP (mg/L), %
 <521.9 (18.3, 26.0)1.00
 ≥537.5 (30.6, 45.0)2.10 (1.24, 1.27)
Creatinine clearance (mL/min), %
 >3023.8 (20.5, 27.4)1.00
 ≤3057.3 (37.8, 74.8)2.98 (2.86, 3.11)
Albumin (g/dL), %
 ≥3.524.4 (21.1, 28.0)1.00
 <3.571.1 (39.7, 90.2)6.83 (6.52, 7.16)
Vitamin B12 (ng/mL), %
 ≥20025.7 (22.1, 29.6)1.00
 <20022.7 (16.3, 30.8)0.81 (0.80, 0.83)
Ferritin (ng/mL),%
 <4543.9 (32.5, 56.1)2.78 (2.73, 2.83)
 ≥4522.6 (19.3, 26.1)1.00
Ferritin (ng/mL), %
 ≤20026.7 (22.9, 31.0)1.00
 >20021.5 (15.9, 28.5)0.80 (0.79, 0.81)

Adjusted for age, race, area of residency, literacy, and smoking status.