Table 4: Comparison of risk factors between recurrent fallers and nonrecurrent fallers (n=300).

CharacteristicRecurrent fallers
n=29
Nonrecurrent fallers
n=271
Significance
(p-value)

Biological factors

Age65-74 years22 (75.9)78 (28.8)< 0.001
75 years and above7 (24.1)193 (71.2)

GenderMale9 (31.0)116 (42.8)0.22
Female20 (69.0)155 (57.2)

Presence of at least one chronic medical condition27 (93.1)156 (57.6)< 0.001

Presence of more than one chronic medical condition18 (62.1)68 (25.1)< 0.001

Presence of more than two chronic medical conditions 9 (31.0)14 (5.2)< 0.001

Diabetes Mellitus13 (44.8)44 (16.2)< 0.001

Cardiac diseases9 (31.0)25 (9.2)< 0.001

Hypertension21 (72.4)103 (38.0)< 0.001

Hyperlipidemia1 (3.4)21 (7.7)0.39

Vertigo/Dizziness4 (13.8)7 (2.6)0.002

Arthritis2 (6.9)22 (8.1)0.81

Chronic pulmonary disease4 (13.8)13 (4.8)0.04

Epilepsy1 (3.4)5 (1.8)0.55

Vision impairment affecting day-to-day activities27 (93.1)203(74.9)0.02

Balance/gait problems or foot abnormality26 (89.7)83 (30.6)< 0.001

Problem with sleep such as insomnia22 (75.9)122 (45.0)0.002

Behavioral factors

Usage of at least one long term medication22 (75.9)117 (43.2)0.001

Usage of more than one long term medication14 (48.3)48 (17.7)< 0.001

Usage of more than two long term medication6 (20.7)11 (4.1)< 0.001

Antihypertensive drugs18(62.1)91 (33.6)0.002

Oral hypoglycemic drugs12 (41.4)37 (13.7)< 0.001

Cardiac/lipid lowering drugs10 (34.5)35 (12.9)0.002

Steroids3 (10.3)13 (4.8)0.20

Consumption of alcohol3 (10.3)68 (25.1)0.07

Smoking2 (6.9)35 (12.9)0.34

Time duration of exposure to sunlight per day≤ 3 hours27 (93.1)131 (48.3)< 0.001
>3 hours2 (6.9)140 (51.7)

Nutritional statusSatisfactory13 (44.8)93 (34.3)0.26
Unsatisfactory16 (55.2)178 (65.7)

Usage of walking aids15 (51.7)16 (5.9)< 0.001

Use of spectacles15 (51.7)129 (47.6)0.67

Environmental factors

Floor materialCement/tile28 (96.6)259 (95.6)0.80
Other1 (3.4)12 (4.4)

Light source of the houseElectricity28 (96.6)262 (96.7)0.97
Other1 (3.4) 9 (3.3)

Water sourceInside home22 (75.9)234 (86.3)0.12
Outside home7 (24.1) 37 (13.7)

Socioeconomic factors

Level of educationGrade 5 or below17 (58.6)99 (36.5)0.02
Beyond grade 512 (41.4)172 (63.5)

Living arrangementWith spouse or children27 (93.1)241 (88.9)0.48
Alone 2 ( 6.9)30 (11.1)

Monthly income
(Sri Lankan Rupees)
< 2000028 (96.6)253 (93.4)0.50
20000 or more 1 ( 3.4)18 (6.6)